University of Hertfordshire

From the same journal

By the same authors

  • Yannis Manios
  • George Moschonis
  • Christina P Lambrinou
  • Christina Mavrogianni
  • Lydia Tsirigoti
  • Ulrich Hoeller
  • Franz F Roos
  • Igor Bendik
  • Manfred Eggersdorfer
  • Carlos Celis-Morales
  • Katherine M Livingstone
  • Cyril F M Marsaux
  • Anna L Macready
  • Rosalind Fallaize
  • Clare B O'Donovan
  • Clara Woolhead
  • Hannah Forster
  • Marianne C Walsh
  • Santiago Navas-Carretero
  • Rodrigo San-Cristobal
  • Silvia Kolossa
  • Jacqueline Hallmann
  • Mirosław Jarosz
  • Agnieszka Surwiłło
  • Iwona Traczyk
  • Christian A Drevon
  • Ben van Ommen
  • Keith Grimaldi
  • John N S Matthews
  • Hannelore Daniel
  • J Alfredo Martinez
  • Julie A Lovegrove
  • Eileen R Gibney
  • Lorraine Brennan
  • Wim H M Saris
  • Mike Gibney
  • John C Mathers
  • Food4Me Study
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Original languageEnglish
Number of pages1357
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
Early online date13 Mar 2017
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2018


PURPOSE: To report the vitamin D status in adults from seven European countries and to identify behavioural correlates.

METHODS: In total, 1075 eligible adult men and women from Ireland, Netherlands, Spain, Greece, UK, Poland and Germany, were included in the study.

RESULTS: Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency, defined as 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25-OHD3) concentration of <30 and 30-49.9 nmol/L, respectively, were observed in 3.3 and 30.6% of the participants. The highest prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was found in the UK and the lowest in the Netherlands (8.2 vs. 1.1%, P < 0.05). In addition, the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was higher in females compared with males (36.6 vs. 22.6%, P < 0.001), in winter compared with summer months (39.3 vs. 25.0%, P < 0.05) and in younger compared with older participants (36.0 vs. 24.4%, P < 0.05). Positive dose-response associations were also observed between 25-OHD3 concentrations and dietary vitamin D intake from foods and supplements, as well as with physical activity (PA) levels. Vitamin D intakes of ≥5 μg/day from foods and ≥5 μg/day from supplements, as well as engagement in ≥30 min/day of moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA were associated with higher odds (P < 0.05) for maintaining sufficient (≥50 nmol/L) 25-OHD3 concentrations.

CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency varied considerably among European adults. Dietary intakes of ≥10 μg/day of vitamin D from foods and/or supplements and at least 30 min/day of moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA were the minimum thresholds associated with vitamin D sufficiency.


© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

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