University of Hertfordshire

Bicyclic 6-6 Systems: Pteridines

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

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Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationComprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry IV
ISBN (Print)9780128186565
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 23 Nov 2021


This article describes the literature on pteridines, covering the period from 2008 to 2020. The physical properties and reactions include photochemistry, substitution at ring nitrogens, nucleophilic substitution at ring carbons, organometallic couplings and methods for side chain elaboration and extension. Synthesis of pteridines is mainly from the pyrimidine, but there are examples from the pyrazine. Pteridine biological pigments and enzyme cofactors are widespread, and aspects of biosynthetic pathways are reviewed. Compounds of special interest and applications include metal complexes, nucleic acid analogues, natural products and increasingly the use of the pteridine scaffold in medicinal chemistry.


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