University of Hertfordshire

From the same journal

From the same journal

By the same authors


  • Chao Geng
  • Chong Ge
  • Dharam V. Lal
  • Ming Sun
  • Li Ji
  • Haiguang Xu
  • Wenhao Liu
  • Martin Hardcastle
  • William Forman
  • Ralph Kraft
  • Christine Jones
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Original languageEnglish
Article numberstac355
Number of pages11
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Publication statusPublished - 11 Feb 2022


Abell 407 (A407) is a unique galaxy cluster hosting a central compact group of nine galaxies (named as 'Zwicky's Nonet'; G1 - G9 in this work) within a 30 kpc radius region. The cluster core also hosts a luminous radio active galactic nucleus (AGN), 4C 35.06 with helically twisted jets extending over 200 kpc. With a 44 ks Chandra observation of A407, we characterize the X-ray properties of its intracluster medium (ICM) and central galaxies. The mean X-ray temperature of A407 is 2.7 keV and the $M_{200}$ is $1.9 \times 10^{14} {M_{\odot}}$. We suggest that A407 has a weak cool core at $r < 60$ kpc scales and at its very center, $< 1$-2 kpc radius, a small galaxy corona associated with the strong radio AGN. We also conclude that the AGN 4C 35.06 host galaxy is most likely G3. We suggest that the central group of galaxies is undergoing a `slow merge' procedure. The range of the merging time-scale is $0.3\sim2.3$ Gyr and the stellar mass of the future brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) will be $7.4\times10^{11} M_{\odot}$. We find that the regions which overlap with the radio jets have higher temperature and metallicity. This is consistent with AGN feedback activity. The central entropy is higher than that for other clusters, which may be due to the AGN feedback and/or merging activity. With all these facts, we suggest that A407 is a unique and rare system in the local universe that could help us to understand the formation of a massive BCG.


© 2022 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. This is the accepted manuscript version of an article which has been published in final form at

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