University of Hertfordshire

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Characteristics of deaths associated with kratom use

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Standard

Characteristics of deaths associated with kratom use. / Corkery, John; Streete, Peter; Claridge, Hugh; Goodair, Christine; Papanti, Duccio G.; Orsolini, Laura; Schifano, Fabrizio; Sikka, Kanav; Körber, Sophie; Hendricks, Amy.

In: Journal of Psychopharmacology, Vol. 33, No. 9, 01.09.2019, p. 1102-1123.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Harvard

Corkery, J, Streete, P, Claridge, H, Goodair, C, Papanti, DG, Orsolini, L, Schifano, F, Sikka, K, Körber, S & Hendricks, A 2019, 'Characteristics of deaths associated with kratom use', Journal of Psychopharmacology, vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 1102-1123. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881119862530

APA

Corkery, J., Streete, P., Claridge, H., Goodair, C., Papanti, D. G., Orsolini, L., Schifano, F., Sikka, K., Körber, S., & Hendricks, A. (2019). Characteristics of deaths associated with kratom use. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 33(9), 1102-1123. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881119862530

Vancouver

Corkery J, Streete P, Claridge H, Goodair C, Papanti DG, Orsolini L et al. Characteristics of deaths associated with kratom use. Journal of Psychopharmacology. 2019 Sep 1;33(9):1102-1123. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881119862530

Author

Corkery, John ; Streete, Peter ; Claridge, Hugh ; Goodair, Christine ; Papanti, Duccio G. ; Orsolini, Laura ; Schifano, Fabrizio ; Sikka, Kanav ; Körber, Sophie ; Hendricks, Amy. / Characteristics of deaths associated with kratom use. In: Journal of Psychopharmacology. 2019 ; Vol. 33, No. 9. pp. 1102-1123.

Bibtex

@article{0cbef9308a6445389cbf7cb5e914df2e,
title = "Characteristics of deaths associated with kratom use",
abstract = "Background: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth) use has increased in Western countries, with a rising number of associated deaths. There is growing debate about the involvement of kratom in these events. Aims: This study details the characteristics of such fatalities and provides a {\textquoteleft}state-of-the-art{\textquoteright} review. Methods: UK cases were identified from mortality registers by searching with the terms {\textquoteleft}kratom{\textquoteright}, {\textquoteleft}mitragynine{\textquoteright}, etc. Databases and online media were searched using these terms and {\textquoteleft}death{\textquoteright}, {\textquoteleft}fatal*{\textquoteright}, {\textquoteleft}overdose{\textquoteright}, {\textquoteleft}poisoning{\textquoteright}, etc. to identify additional cases; details were obtained from relevant officials. Case characteristics were extracted into an Excel spreadsheet, and analysed employing descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Results: Typical case characteristics (n = 156): male (80%), mean age 32.3 years, White (100%), drug abuse history (95%); reasons for use included self-medication, recreation, relaxation, bodybuilding, and avoiding positive drug tests. Mitragynine alone was identified/implicated in 23% of cases. Poly substance use was common (87%), typically controlled/recreational drugs, therapeutic drugs, and alcohol. Death cause(s) included toxic effects of kratom ± other substances; underlying health issues. Conclusions: These findings add substantially to the knowledge base on kratom-associated deaths; these need systematic, accurate recording. Kratom{\textquoteright}s safety profile remains only partially understood; toxic and fatal levels require quantification.",
keywords = "Mitragynine, cause of death, characteristics, kratom, toxicology",
author = "John Corkery and Peter Streete and Hugh Claridge and Christine Goodair and Papanti, {Duccio G.} and Laura Orsolini and Fabrizio Schifano and Kanav Sikka and Sophie K{\"o}rber and Amy Hendricks",
note = "Submitted on 15 February 2019. Reviewers{\textquoteright} comments received 10 May 2019. Revision accepted 17 June 2019. Published early online 20 August 2019. Published with Volume, etc. 5 September 2019.",
year = "2019",
month = sep,
day = "1",
doi = "10.1177/0269881119862530",
language = "English",
volume = "33",
pages = "1102--1123",
journal = "Journal of Psychopharmacology",
issn = "0269-8811",
publisher = "SAGE Publications Ltd",
number = "9",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Characteristics of deaths associated with kratom use

AU - Corkery, John

AU - Streete, Peter

AU - Claridge, Hugh

AU - Goodair, Christine

AU - Papanti, Duccio G.

AU - Orsolini, Laura

AU - Schifano, Fabrizio

AU - Sikka, Kanav

AU - Körber, Sophie

AU - Hendricks, Amy

N1 - Submitted on 15 February 2019. Reviewers’ comments received 10 May 2019. Revision accepted 17 June 2019. Published early online 20 August 2019. Published with Volume, etc. 5 September 2019.

PY - 2019/9/1

Y1 - 2019/9/1

N2 - Background: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth) use has increased in Western countries, with a rising number of associated deaths. There is growing debate about the involvement of kratom in these events. Aims: This study details the characteristics of such fatalities and provides a ‘state-of-the-art’ review. Methods: UK cases were identified from mortality registers by searching with the terms ‘kratom’, ‘mitragynine’, etc. Databases and online media were searched using these terms and ‘death’, ‘fatal*’, ‘overdose’, ‘poisoning’, etc. to identify additional cases; details were obtained from relevant officials. Case characteristics were extracted into an Excel spreadsheet, and analysed employing descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Results: Typical case characteristics (n = 156): male (80%), mean age 32.3 years, White (100%), drug abuse history (95%); reasons for use included self-medication, recreation, relaxation, bodybuilding, and avoiding positive drug tests. Mitragynine alone was identified/implicated in 23% of cases. Poly substance use was common (87%), typically controlled/recreational drugs, therapeutic drugs, and alcohol. Death cause(s) included toxic effects of kratom ± other substances; underlying health issues. Conclusions: These findings add substantially to the knowledge base on kratom-associated deaths; these need systematic, accurate recording. Kratom’s safety profile remains only partially understood; toxic and fatal levels require quantification.

AB - Background: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth) use has increased in Western countries, with a rising number of associated deaths. There is growing debate about the involvement of kratom in these events. Aims: This study details the characteristics of such fatalities and provides a ‘state-of-the-art’ review. Methods: UK cases were identified from mortality registers by searching with the terms ‘kratom’, ‘mitragynine’, etc. Databases and online media were searched using these terms and ‘death’, ‘fatal*’, ‘overdose’, ‘poisoning’, etc. to identify additional cases; details were obtained from relevant officials. Case characteristics were extracted into an Excel spreadsheet, and analysed employing descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Results: Typical case characteristics (n = 156): male (80%), mean age 32.3 years, White (100%), drug abuse history (95%); reasons for use included self-medication, recreation, relaxation, bodybuilding, and avoiding positive drug tests. Mitragynine alone was identified/implicated in 23% of cases. Poly substance use was common (87%), typically controlled/recreational drugs, therapeutic drugs, and alcohol. Death cause(s) included toxic effects of kratom ± other substances; underlying health issues. Conclusions: These findings add substantially to the knowledge base on kratom-associated deaths; these need systematic, accurate recording. Kratom’s safety profile remains only partially understood; toxic and fatal levels require quantification.

KW - Mitragynine

KW - cause of death

KW - characteristics

KW - kratom

KW - toxicology

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85071493122&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1177/0269881119862530

DO - 10.1177/0269881119862530

M3 - Article

VL - 33

SP - 1102

EP - 1123

JO - Journal of Psychopharmacology

JF - Journal of Psychopharmacology

SN - 0269-8811

IS - 9

ER -