University of Hertfordshire

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By the same authors

Characterizing ice particles using two-dimensional reflections of a lidar beam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Marissa Goerke
  • Zbigniew Ulanowski
  • Georg Ritter
  • Evelyn Hesse
  • Ryan Neely
  • Laurence Taylor
  • Robert Stillwell
  • Paul Kaye
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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)G188-G196
JournalApplied Optics
Early online date1 May 2017
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2017


We report a phenomenon manifesting itself as brief flashes of light on the snow surface near a lidar beam. The flashes are imaged and interpreted as specular reflection patterns from individual ice particles. Such patterns have two-dimensional structure, and are similar to those previously observed in forward scattering. Patterns are easiest to capture from particles with well-defined horizontal facets, such as near-horizontally aligned plates. The patterns and their position can be used to determine properties such as ice particle shape, size, roughness, alignment and altitude. Data obtained at Summit in Greenland shows the presence of regular hexagonal and scalene plates, columns and rounded plates of various sizes, among others.


This is an Open Access article published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article’s title, journal citation, and DOI. © 2017 Optical Society of America.


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