University of Hertfordshire

From the same journal

Cloud Ice Properties: In Situ Measurement Challenges

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Darrel Baumgardner
  • Steve Abel
  • Duncan Axisa
  • Richard Cotton
  • Jonathan Crosier
  • P.R. Field
  • Colin Gurganus
  • Andrew J. Heymsfield
  • Alexei Korolev
  • Martina Kraemer
  • Paul Lawson
  • Greg McFarquhar
  • Zbigniew Ulanowski
  • Junshik Um
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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9.1–9.23
Number of pages23
JournalMeteorological Monographs
Early online date7 Feb 2017
Publication statusPublished - 10 Apr 2017


Understanding the formation and evolution of ice in clouds requires detailed information on the size, shape, mass and optical properties of individual cloud hydrometeors and their bulk properties over a broad range of atmospheric conditions. Since the 1960s, instrumentation and research aircraft have evolved providing increasingly more accurate and larger quantities of data about cloud particle properties. In this chapter we review the current status of electrical powered, in situ measurement systems with respect to their strengths and weaknesses and document their limitations and uncertainties. There remain many outstanding challenges. These are summarized and accompanied by recommendations for moving forward. through new developments that fill the remaining information gaps. Closing these gaps will remove the obstacles that continue to hinder our understanding of cloud processes in general and the evolution of ice in particular.


Baumgardner D., S.J. Abel, D. Axisa, R. Cotton, J. Crosier, P. Field, C. Gurganus, A. Heymsfield, A. Korolev, M. Krämer, P. Lawson, G. McFarquhar, Z. Ulanowski, and J. Um, 'Cloud ice properties: in situ measurement challenges', Meteorological Monographs, Vol. 58, pp. 9.1–9.23, April 2017. The version of record is available online at doi: 10.1175/AMSMONOGRAPHS-D-16-0011.1.1 © 2017 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (


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