University of Hertfordshire

From the same journal

From the same journal


  • Y. Lin
  • H.~B. Liu
  • D. Li
  • Z.-Y. Zhang
  • A. Ginsburg
  • J.~E. Pineda
  • L. Qian
  • R. Galván-Madrid
  • A.~F. McLeod
  • E. Rosolowsky
  • James Dale
  • K. Immer
  • E. Koch
  • S. Longmore
  • L. Testi
  • D Walker
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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)32
Number of pages1
JournalThe Astrophysical Journal
Early online date25 Aug 2016
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2016


We have developed an iterative procedure to systematically combine the millimeter and submillimeter images of OB cluster-forming molecular clouds, which were taken by ground-based (CSO, JCMT, APEX, and IRAM-30 m) and space telescopes (Herschel and Planck). For the seven luminous ($L\gt {10}^{6}$ L ⊙) Galactic OB cluster-forming molecular clouds selected for our analyses, namely W49A, W43-Main, W43-South, W33, G10.6-0.4, G10.2-0.3, and G10.3-0.1, we have performed single-component, modified blackbody fits to each pixel of the combined (sub)millimeter images, and the Herschel PACS and SPIRE images at shorter wavelengths. The ~10'' resolution dust column density and temperature maps of these sources revealed dramatically different morphologies, indicating very different modes of OB cluster-formation, or parent molecular cloud structures in different evolutionary stages. The molecular clouds W49A, W33, and G10.6-0.4 show centrally concentrated massive molecular clumps that are connected with approximately radially orientated molecular gas filaments. The W43-Main and W43-South molecular cloud complexes, which are located at the intersection of the Galactic near 3 kpc (or Scutum) arm and the Galactic bar, show a widely scattered distribution of dense molecular clumps/cores over the observed ~10 pc spatial scale. The relatively evolved sources G10.2-0.3 and G10.3-0.1 appear to be affected by stellar feedback, and show a complicated cloud morphology embedded with abundant dense molecular clumps/cores. We find that with the high angular resolution we achieved, our visual classification of cloud morphology can be linked to the systematically derived statistical quantities (i.e., the enclosed mass profile, the column density probability distribution function (N-PDF), the two-point correlation function of column density, and the probability distribution function of clump/core separations). In particular, the massive molecular gas clumps located at the center of G10.6-0.4 and W49A, which contribute to a considerable fraction of their overall cloud masses, may be special OB cluster-forming environments as a direct consequence of global cloud collapse. These centralized massive molecular gas clumps also uniquely occupy much higher column densities than what is determined by the overall fit of power-law N-PDF. We have made efforts to archive the derived statistical quantities of individual target sources, to permit comparisons with theoretical frameworks, numerical simulations, and other observations in the sources, to permit comparisons with theoretical frameworks, numerical simulations, and other


The final, definitive version of this paper has been published in The Astrophysical Journal, 828:32 (50pp), 1 September 2016, © 2016, doi: 10.3847/0004-637X/828/1/32, first published on line August 25, 2016, by the The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

ID: 10626903