University of Hertfordshire

From the same journal

By the same authors


  • Katherine M Livingstone
  • Carlos Celis-Morales
  • Jose Lara
  • Clara Woolhead
  • Clare B O'Donovan
  • Hannah Forster
  • Cyril Fm Marsaux
  • Anna L Macready
  • Santiago Navas-Carretero
  • Rodrigo San-Cristobal
  • Silvia Kolossa
  • Lydia Tsirigoti
  • Christina P Lambrinou
  • George Moschonis
  • Agnieszka Surwiłło
  • Christian A Drevon
  • Yannis Manios
  • Iwona Traczyk
  • Eileen R Gibney
  • Lorraine Brennan
  • Marianne C Walsh
  • Julie A Lovegrove
  • J Alfredo Martinez
  • Wim Hm Saris
  • Hannelore Daniel
  • Mike Gibney
  • John C Mathers
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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalPublic Health Nutrition
Early online date8 Aug 2016
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2016


OBJECTIVE: To characterise clusters of individuals based on adherence to dietary recommendations and to determine whether changes in Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores in response to a personalised nutrition (PN) intervention varied between clusters.

DESIGN: Food4Me study participants were clustered according to whether their baseline dietary intakes met European dietary recommendations. Changes in HEI scores between baseline and month 6 were compared between clusters and stratified by whether individuals received generalised or PN advice.

SETTING: Pan-European, Internet-based, 6-month randomised controlled trial.

SUBJECTS: Adults aged 18-79 years (n 1480).

RESULTS: Individuals in cluster 1 (C1) met all recommended intakes except for red meat, those in cluster 2 (C2) met two recommendations, and those in cluster 3 (C3) and cluster 4 (C4) met one recommendation each. C1 had higher intakes of white fish, beans and lentils and low-fat dairy products and lower percentage energy intake from SFA (P<0·05). C2 consumed less chips and pizza and fried foods than C3 and C4 (P<0·05). C1 were lighter, had lower BMI and waist circumference than C3 and were more physically active than C4 (P<0·05). More individuals in C4 were smokers and wanted to lose weight than in C1 (P<0·05). Individuals who received PN advice in C4 reported greater improvements in HEI compared with C3 and C1 (P<0·05).

CONCLUSIONS: The cluster where the fewest recommendations were met (C4) reported greater improvements in HEI following a 6-month trial of PN whereas there was no difference between clusters for those randomised to the Control, non-personalised dietary intervention.


This is a pre-copyedited, author-produced pdf of an article accepted for publication in Public Health Nutrition following peer review. The version of record, ‘Clustering of adherence to personalised dietary recommendations and changes in healthy eating index within the Food4Me Study’, K. M. Livingstone,, Public Health Nutrition, Vol 19 (18): 3296-3305, December 2016, first published on line on August 8, 2016, is available on line via doi: http;// © 2016 The Authors. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license

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