University of Hertfordshire

From the same journal

Combining orthopaedic special tests to improve diagnosis of shoulder pathology.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Eric Hegedus
  • Chad Cook
  • Jeremy Lewis
  • Alexis Wright
  • J-Y Park
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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)87-92
Number of pages6
JournalPhysical Therapy in Sport
Early online date10 Aug 2014
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2015


The use of orthopedic special tests (OSTs) to diagnose shoulder pathology via the clinical examination is standard in clinical practice. There is a great deal of research on special tests but much of the research is of a lower quality implying that the metrics from that research, sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios, is likely to vary greatly in the hands of different clinicians and in varying practice environments. A way to improve the clinical diagnostic process is to cluster OSTs and to use these clusters to either rule in or out different pathologies. The aim of the article is to review the best OST clusters, examine the methodology by which they were derived, and illustrate, with a case study, the use of these OST clusters to arrive at a pathology-based diagnosis.


This document is the accepted manuscript version of the following article: Eric J. Hegedus, et al, 'Combining orthopedic special tests to improve diagnosis of shoulder pathology', Physical Therapy in Sport, Vol. 16 (2): 87-92, May 2015, doi: This manuscript version is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.

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