University of Hertfordshire

Comparison of pediatric and adult antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infections

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Comparison of pediatric and adult antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infections. / McFarland, Lynne Vernice; Ozen, Metehan; Dinleyici, Ener Cagri; Goh, Shan.

In: World journal of gastroenterology, Vol. 22, No. 11, 21.03.2016, p. 3078-104.

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McFarland, Lynne Vernice ; Ozen, Metehan ; Dinleyici, Ener Cagri ; Goh, Shan. / Comparison of pediatric and adult antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infections. In: World journal of gastroenterology. 2016 ; Vol. 22, No. 11. pp. 3078-104.

Bibtex

@article{cb677e29822d4716bf4aa69a40d81a91,
title = "Comparison of pediatric and adult antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infections",
abstract = "Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) have been well studied for adult cases, but not as well in the pediatric population. Whether the disease process or response to treatments differs between pediatric and adult patients is an important clinical concern when following global guidelines based largely on adult patients. A systematic review of the literature using databases PubMed (June 3, 1978-2015) was conducted to compare AAD and CDI in pediatric and adult populations and determine significant differences and similarities that might impact clinical decisions. In general, pediatric AAD and CDI have a more rapid onset of symptoms, a shorter duration of disease and fewer CDI complications (required surgeries and extended hospitalizations) than in adults. Children experience more community-associated CDI and are associated with smaller outbreaks than adult cases of CDI. The ribotype NAP1/027/BI is more common in adults than children. Children and adults share some similar risk factors, but adults have more complex risk factor profiles associated with more co-morbidities, types of disruptive factors and a wider range of exposures to C. difficile in the healthcare environment. The treatment of pediatric and adult AAD is similar (discontinuing or switching the inciting antibiotic), but other treatment strategies for AAD have not been established. Pediatric CDI responds better to metronidazole, while adult CDI responds better to vancomycin. Recurrent CDI is not commonly reported for children. Prevention for both pediatric and adult AAD and CDI relies upon integrated infection control programs, antibiotic stewardship and may include the use of adjunctive probiotics. Clinical presentation of pediatric AAD and CDI are different than adult AAD and CDI symptoms. These differences should be taken into account when rating severity of disease and prescribing antibiotics.",
keywords = "Adolescent, Adult, Age Distribution, Age Factors, Aged, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Child, Child, Preschool, Clostridium difficile, Diarrhea, Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous, Humans, Incidence, Infant, Middle Aged, Recurrence, Risk Factors, Severity of Illness Index, Treatment Outcome, Young Adult, Comparative Study, Journal Article, Review",
author = "McFarland, {Lynne Vernice} and Metehan Ozen and Dinleyici, {Ener Cagri} and Shan Goh",
note = "This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-nc/4.0/.",
year = "2016",
month = mar,
day = "21",
doi = "10.3748/wjg.v22.i11.3078",
language = "English",
volume = "22",
pages = "3078--104",
journal = "World journal of gastroenterology",
issn = "1007-9327",
publisher = "WJG Press",
number = "11",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Comparison of pediatric and adult antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infections

AU - McFarland, Lynne Vernice

AU - Ozen, Metehan

AU - Dinleyici, Ener Cagri

AU - Goh, Shan

N1 - This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

PY - 2016/3/21

Y1 - 2016/3/21

N2 - Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) have been well studied for adult cases, but not as well in the pediatric population. Whether the disease process or response to treatments differs between pediatric and adult patients is an important clinical concern when following global guidelines based largely on adult patients. A systematic review of the literature using databases PubMed (June 3, 1978-2015) was conducted to compare AAD and CDI in pediatric and adult populations and determine significant differences and similarities that might impact clinical decisions. In general, pediatric AAD and CDI have a more rapid onset of symptoms, a shorter duration of disease and fewer CDI complications (required surgeries and extended hospitalizations) than in adults. Children experience more community-associated CDI and are associated with smaller outbreaks than adult cases of CDI. The ribotype NAP1/027/BI is more common in adults than children. Children and adults share some similar risk factors, but adults have more complex risk factor profiles associated with more co-morbidities, types of disruptive factors and a wider range of exposures to C. difficile in the healthcare environment. The treatment of pediatric and adult AAD is similar (discontinuing or switching the inciting antibiotic), but other treatment strategies for AAD have not been established. Pediatric CDI responds better to metronidazole, while adult CDI responds better to vancomycin. Recurrent CDI is not commonly reported for children. Prevention for both pediatric and adult AAD and CDI relies upon integrated infection control programs, antibiotic stewardship and may include the use of adjunctive probiotics. Clinical presentation of pediatric AAD and CDI are different than adult AAD and CDI symptoms. These differences should be taken into account when rating severity of disease and prescribing antibiotics.

AB - Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) have been well studied for adult cases, but not as well in the pediatric population. Whether the disease process or response to treatments differs between pediatric and adult patients is an important clinical concern when following global guidelines based largely on adult patients. A systematic review of the literature using databases PubMed (June 3, 1978-2015) was conducted to compare AAD and CDI in pediatric and adult populations and determine significant differences and similarities that might impact clinical decisions. In general, pediatric AAD and CDI have a more rapid onset of symptoms, a shorter duration of disease and fewer CDI complications (required surgeries and extended hospitalizations) than in adults. Children experience more community-associated CDI and are associated with smaller outbreaks than adult cases of CDI. The ribotype NAP1/027/BI is more common in adults than children. Children and adults share some similar risk factors, but adults have more complex risk factor profiles associated with more co-morbidities, types of disruptive factors and a wider range of exposures to C. difficile in the healthcare environment. The treatment of pediatric and adult AAD is similar (discontinuing or switching the inciting antibiotic), but other treatment strategies for AAD have not been established. Pediatric CDI responds better to metronidazole, while adult CDI responds better to vancomycin. Recurrent CDI is not commonly reported for children. Prevention for both pediatric and adult AAD and CDI relies upon integrated infection control programs, antibiotic stewardship and may include the use of adjunctive probiotics. Clinical presentation of pediatric AAD and CDI are different than adult AAD and CDI symptoms. These differences should be taken into account when rating severity of disease and prescribing antibiotics.

KW - Adolescent

KW - Adult

KW - Age Distribution

KW - Age Factors

KW - Aged

KW - Anti-Bacterial Agents

KW - Child

KW - Child, Preschool

KW - Clostridium difficile

KW - Diarrhea

KW - Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous

KW - Humans

KW - Incidence

KW - Infant

KW - Middle Aged

KW - Recurrence

KW - Risk Factors

KW - Severity of Illness Index

KW - Treatment Outcome

KW - Young Adult

KW - Comparative Study

KW - Journal Article

KW - Review

U2 - 10.3748/wjg.v22.i11.3078

DO - 10.3748/wjg.v22.i11.3078

M3 - Article

C2 - 27003987

VL - 22

SP - 3078

EP - 3104

JO - World journal of gastroenterology

JF - World journal of gastroenterology

SN - 1007-9327

IS - 11

ER -