University of Hertfordshire

By the same authors


View graph of relations
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)137-146
Number of pages11
JournalEuropean Journal of Physiotherapy
Early online date20 Apr 2017
Publication statusPublished - 3 Jul 2017


Aims: Radiofrequency-based electrophysical agents (EPAs) have been used in therapy practice over several decades (e.g. shortwave therapies). Currently, there is insufficient evidence supporting such EPAs operating below shortwave frequencies. This laboratory-based study investigated the deep physiological effects of 448 kHz capacitive resistive monopolar radiofrequency (CRMRF) and compared them to pulsed shortwave therapy (PSWT). Methods: In a randomized crossover study, 17 healthy volunteers initially received four treatment conditions: high, low and placebo dose conditions receiving 15-min CRMRF treatment and a control condition receiving no intervention. Fifteen participants additionally received high-dose PSWT as fifth condition, for comparison. Pre- and post-treatment measurements of deep blood flow and tissue extensibility were obtained using Doppler ultrasound and sonoelastography. Group data were compared using analysis of variance model. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ .05, 0.8 power, and 95% confidence interval. Results: Significant increases in volume and intensity of deep blood flow were obtained with CRMRF over placebo, control (p = .003) and PSWT (p < .001). No significant changes in blood flow velocity or tissue extensibility were noted for any condition. Conclusions: Deep blood flow changes with CRMRF were more pronounced than that with PSWT, placebo or control. Potential greater therapeutic benefits need to be confirmed with comparative clinical studies.


This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of the following article: Binoy Kumaran, Anthony Herbland and Tim Watson, ‘Continuous-mode 448 kHz capacitive resistive monopolar radiofrequency induces greater deep blood flow changes compared to pulsed mode shortwave: a crossover study in healthy adults’, European Journal of Physiotheraphy, first published online 20 April 2017. The version of record is available online at doi: © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

ID: 11543510