University of Hertfordshire

  • Carlos Celis-Morales
  • Katherine M Livingstone
  • Alexander Affleck
  • Santiago Navas-Carretero
  • Rodrigo San-Cristobal
  • J Alfredo Martinez
  • Cyril F M Marsaux
  • Wim H M Saris
  • Clare B O'Donovan
  • Hannah Forster
  • Clara Woolhead
  • Eileen R Gibney
  • Marianne C Walsh
  • Lorraine Brennan
  • Mike Gibney
  • George Moschonis
  • Christina-Paulina Lambrinou
  • Christina Mavrogianni
  • Yannis Manios
  • Anna L Macready
  • Rosalind Fallaize
  • Julie A Lovegrove
  • Silvia Kolossa
  • Hannelore Daniel
  • Iwona Traczyk
  • Christian A Drevon
  • John C Mathers
  • Food4Me Study
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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)207-219
JournalEuropean Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Early online date15 Dec 2017
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 15 Dec 2017


BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To identify predictors of obesity in adults and investigate to what extent these predictors are independent of other major confounding factors.

SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data collected at baseline from 1441 participants from the Food4Me study conducted in seven European countries were included in this study. A food frequency questionnaire was used to measure dietary intake. Accelerometers were used to assess physical activity levels (PA), whereas participants self-reported their body weight, height and waist circumference via the internet.

RESULTS: The main factors associated (p < 0.05) with higher BMI per 1-SD increase in the exposure were age (β:1.11 kg/m2), intakes of processed meat (β:1.04 kg/m2), red meat (β:1.02 kg/m2), saturated fat (β:0.84 kg/m2), monounsaturated fat (β:0.80 kg/m2), protein (β:0.74 kg/m2), total energy intake (β:0.50 kg/m2), olive oil (β:0.36 kg/m2), sugar sweetened carbonated drinks (β:0.33 kg/m2) and sedentary time (β:0.73 kg/m2). In contrast, the main factors associated with lower BMI per 1-SD increase in the exposure were PA (β:-1.36 kg/m2), intakes of wholegrains (β:-1.05 kg/m2), fibre (β:-1.02 kg/m2), fruits and vegetables (β:-0.52 kg/m2), nuts (β:-0.52 kg/m2), polyunsaturated fat (β:-0.50 kg/m2), Healthy Eating Index (β:-0.42 kg/m2), Mediterranean diet score (β:-0.40 kg/m2), oily fish (β:-0.31 kg/m2), dairy (β:-0.31 kg/m2) and fruit juice (β:-0.25 kg/m2).

CONCLUSIONS: These findings are important for public health and suggest that promotion of increased PA, reducing sedentary behaviours and improving the overall quality of dietary patterns are important strategies for addressing the existing obesity epidemic and associated disease burden.


© Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature 2018

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