University of Hertfordshire

Defining the research agenda to measure and reduce tuberculosis stigmas

Research output: Contribution to journalSpecial issuepeer-review


  • Macintyre, Kate; Bakker, Mirjam Irene; Bergson, Susan; Bhavaraju, Rajita; Bond, Virginia PhD; Chikovore, Jeremiah; Colvin, Charlotte; Craig, Gill; Daftary, Amrita; Engel, Nora; Ferris France, Nadine; Jaramillo, Ernesto MD; Kimerling, Michael; Kipp, Aaron M; Krishnaratne, Shari; Mergenthaler, Christina Jane; Lim, Hyeyoung; Ngicho, Millicent; Redwood, Lisa; Rood, Ente; Smyth, Caoimhe; Sommerland, Nina; Stangl, Anne; Van Rie, Annelies; Sahu, Suvanand; Van Brakel, Win; Wouters, Edwin; Zwerling, Alice; Mitchell, Ellen M. H.; Cremers, Lianne
  • Gillian Craig
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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S87-S96
Number of pages10
JournalThe International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
IssueSup. 1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2017


Crucial to finding and treating the 4 million tuberculosis (TB) patients currently missed by National TB Programs, TB stigma is receiving well-deserved and long-delayed attention at the global level. However, the ability to measure and evaluate the success of TB stigma reduction efforts is limited by the need for additional tools. At a 2016 TB stigma measurement meeting held in The Hague, stigma experts discussed and proposed a research agenda around four themes: (1) Drivers: What are the main drivers and domains of TB stigma(s)?; (2) Consequences: How consequential are TB stigmas? How are negative impacts most felt?; (3) Burden: What is the global prevalence and distribution of TB stigma(s)? What explains any variation? (4): Intervention: What can be done to reduce the extent and impact of TB stigma(s)?

Each theme was further subdivided into research topics to be addressed to move the agenda forward. These include more clarity on what causes TB stigmas to emerge and thrive, the difficulty of measuring the complexity of stigma, and the improbability of a universal stigma ‘cure’. Notwithstanding, these challenges should not hinder investments in TB stigma measurement and reduction. We believe it is time to focus on how and not whether the global community should measure and reduce TB stigma.


This is an Open Access article, © 2017 International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. Content in the UH Research Archive is made available for personal research, educational, and non-commercial purposes only. Unless otherwise stated, all content is protected by copyright, and in the absence of an open license, permissions for further re-use should be sought from the publisher, the author, or other copyright holder.

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