University of Hertfordshire

From the same journal


  • Samantha Rogers
  • Beverly A. Hughes
  • Christopher A. Jones
  • Lauren Freedman
  • Katherine Smart
  • Norman Taylor
  • Paul M. Stewart
  • Cedric H.L. Shackleton
  • Nils P. Krone
  • Jacqueline Blissett
  • Jeremy W. Tomlinson
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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E821-E831
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2014


Objective: We have hypothesized that changes in GC metabolism leading to increased availability may impair growth.
Design: This was a prospective, longitudinal study with clinical measurements and 24-hour urinary steroid metabolite analysis at 1, 4, 12, 26, and 52 weeks after delivery in mothers and their babies.
Setting: The study was conducted with observations and samples collected in the volunteers’ own homes.
Participants: Healthy mothers and newborn babies/infants participated in the study. Interventions: There were no interventions.
Main outcome measures: Urinary steroid metabolite excretion quantified by gas chromatography/ mass spectroscopy across the first year of life in relation to change in weight was measured.
Results: The total production of the GC metabolites quantified increased across the first year of life. Markers of 11ﰀ-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity increased from the age of 3 months as did those of 5ﰂ-reductase activity. After correcting for confounding variables, low markers of 11ﰀ-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 activity was associated with reduced absolute weight and decreased weight gain over the first year of life. In the mothers, 5ﰂ-reductase activity was low at birth and progressively increased to normal over the first 6 months postpartum.
Conclusions: Increased GC exposure as a consequence of reduced 11ﰀ-hydroxysteroid dehydro- genase type 2 activity is likely to be a critical determinant of growth in early life. This not only highlights the central role of GCs and their metabolism, but also emphasizes the need for detailed longitudinal analyses.


This is a pre-copyedited, author-produced version of an article accepted for publication in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism following peer review. The version of record [Samantha L. Rogers, et al, 'Diminished 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 Activity Is Associated With Decreased Weight and Weight Gain Across the First Year of Life', The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Vol. 99 (5): E821-E832, May 2014] is available online at:

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