University of Hertfordshire

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Original languageEnglish
Article number8
Pages (from-to)1-10
JournalEngineering Solid Mechanics
Publication statusPublished - 21 Jan 2020


Finite Element Analysis was carried out to describe the effect of frictional boundary conditions and percentage reduction on deformation modelling (forward extrusion) of Aluminum AA6063 alloy. Curved die profiles of regular polygons (square, hexagonal, heptagonal, and octagonal) were designed using MATLAB R2009b and Autodesk Inventor 2013 to generate the coordinate and thesolid CAD model of the die profile respectively form a circular billet. The numerical analysis was performed using DeformTM-3D commercial package with frictional boundary conditions of 0.38 and 0.75 representing the wet and dry condition and varying the percentage reduction of 50%, 70%, and 90%. The results of the temperature distribution, effective stress, effective strain, andstrain rate were reported. As the percentage area reduction increases, the extrusion pressure also increases with an increasing frictional condition, and die length. Also, extrusion pressure decreases when the side of the polygon increases from square-shaped section follow by hexagonal shaped-section and least in octagonal shaped-section for both friction factors and percentage areareductions. For a given percentage reduction and cross-sectional area, there is no distinct difference between the predictive loads for the shaped-polygons. When the result of this analysis is compared with the experimental results from the literature, it is evident that DeformTM-3D is an effective tool for finite element analysis of non-isothermal deformation processes.


© 2020 by the authors; licensee Growing Science, Canada. This is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license (

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