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Evolutionary Considerations on the Emerging Subculture of the E-psychonauts and the Novel Psychoactive Substances : A Comeback to the Shamanism? / Orsolini, Laura; St John-Smith, Paul; McQueen, Daniel; Papanti, Duccio; Corkery, John; Schifano, Fabrizio.

In: Current neuropharmacology, Vol. 15, No. 5, 31.12.2017, p. 731-737.

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@article{fdf4794e52cb4817918fdcc13cc5153b,
title = "Evolutionary Considerations on the Emerging Subculture of the E-psychonauts and the Novel Psychoactive Substances: A Comeback to the Shamanism?",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Evolutionary research on drug abuse has hitherto been restricted to proximate studies, considering aetiology, mechanism, and ontogeny. However, in order to explain the recent emergency of a new behavioral pattern (e.g. 'the e-psychonaut style') of novel psychoactive substances' (NPS) intake, a complementary evolutionary model may be needed.OBJECTIVE: A range of evolutionary interpretations on the 'psychonaut style' and the recent emergency of NPS were here considered.METHOD: The PubMed database was searched in order to elicit evolutionary theory-based documents commenting on NPS/NPS users/e-psychonauts.RESULTS: The traditional 'shamanic style' use of entheogens/plant-derived compounds may present with a range of similarities with the 'e-psychonauts' use of mostly of hallucinogen/psychedelic NPS. These users consider themselves as 'new/technological' shamans.CONCLUSION: Indeed, a range of evolutionary mechanisms, such as: optimal foraging, costly signaling, and reproduction at the expense of health may all cooperate to explain the recent spread and diffusion of the NPS market, and this may represent a reason of concern.",
keywords = "evolutionary models, Novel Psychoactive Substances, NPS, entheogens, psychonauts, shamanism, evolution, psychiatry",
author = "Laura Orsolini and {St John-Smith}, Paul and Daniel McQueen and Duccio Papanti and John Corkery and Fabrizio Schifano",
note = "This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a published work that appeared in final form in Current neuropharmacology after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. Under embargo until 31 December 2018. The Version of Record is available online at doi: https://doi.org/10.2174/1570159X15666161111114838 ",
year = "2017",
month = dec,
day = "31",
doi = "10.2174/1570159X15666161111114838",
language = "English",
volume = "15",
pages = "731--737",
journal = "Current neuropharmacology",
issn = "1570-159X",
publisher = "Bentham Science Publishers B.V.",
number = "5",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Evolutionary Considerations on the Emerging Subculture of the E-psychonauts and the Novel Psychoactive Substances

T2 - A Comeback to the Shamanism?

AU - Orsolini, Laura

AU - St John-Smith, Paul

AU - McQueen, Daniel

AU - Papanti, Duccio

AU - Corkery, John

AU - Schifano, Fabrizio

N1 - This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a published work that appeared in final form in Current neuropharmacology after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. Under embargo until 31 December 2018. The Version of Record is available online at doi: https://doi.org/10.2174/1570159X15666161111114838

PY - 2017/12/31

Y1 - 2017/12/31

N2 - BACKGROUND: Evolutionary research on drug abuse has hitherto been restricted to proximate studies, considering aetiology, mechanism, and ontogeny. However, in order to explain the recent emergency of a new behavioral pattern (e.g. 'the e-psychonaut style') of novel psychoactive substances' (NPS) intake, a complementary evolutionary model may be needed.OBJECTIVE: A range of evolutionary interpretations on the 'psychonaut style' and the recent emergency of NPS were here considered.METHOD: The PubMed database was searched in order to elicit evolutionary theory-based documents commenting on NPS/NPS users/e-psychonauts.RESULTS: The traditional 'shamanic style' use of entheogens/plant-derived compounds may present with a range of similarities with the 'e-psychonauts' use of mostly of hallucinogen/psychedelic NPS. These users consider themselves as 'new/technological' shamans.CONCLUSION: Indeed, a range of evolutionary mechanisms, such as: optimal foraging, costly signaling, and reproduction at the expense of health may all cooperate to explain the recent spread and diffusion of the NPS market, and this may represent a reason of concern.

AB - BACKGROUND: Evolutionary research on drug abuse has hitherto been restricted to proximate studies, considering aetiology, mechanism, and ontogeny. However, in order to explain the recent emergency of a new behavioral pattern (e.g. 'the e-psychonaut style') of novel psychoactive substances' (NPS) intake, a complementary evolutionary model may be needed.OBJECTIVE: A range of evolutionary interpretations on the 'psychonaut style' and the recent emergency of NPS were here considered.METHOD: The PubMed database was searched in order to elicit evolutionary theory-based documents commenting on NPS/NPS users/e-psychonauts.RESULTS: The traditional 'shamanic style' use of entheogens/plant-derived compounds may present with a range of similarities with the 'e-psychonauts' use of mostly of hallucinogen/psychedelic NPS. These users consider themselves as 'new/technological' shamans.CONCLUSION: Indeed, a range of evolutionary mechanisms, such as: optimal foraging, costly signaling, and reproduction at the expense of health may all cooperate to explain the recent spread and diffusion of the NPS market, and this may represent a reason of concern.

KW - evolutionary models

KW - Novel Psychoactive Substances

KW - NPS

KW - entheogens

KW - psychonauts

KW - shamanism

KW - evolution

KW - psychiatry

U2 - 10.2174/1570159X15666161111114838

DO - 10.2174/1570159X15666161111114838

M3 - Article

C2 - 27834144

VL - 15

SP - 731

EP - 737

JO - Current neuropharmacology

JF - Current neuropharmacology

SN - 1570-159X

IS - 5

ER -