University of Hertfordshire

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)48-65
JournalInternational Journal of Engine Research
Early online date4 Sep 2012
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2014


In order to meet the ever more stringent emission standards, significant efforts have been devoted to the research and development of internal combustion engines. The requirements for more efficient and responsive diesel engines have led to the introduction and implementation of multiple injection strategies. However, the effects of such injection modes on the hydraulic systems, such as the high-pressure pipes and fuel injectors, must be thoroughly examined and compensated for since the combustion and the formation of pollutants in direct-injection engines are directly influenced by the spatial and temporal distribution of the injected fuel within the combustion chamber. This study investigated the hydraulic effects of two-stage fuel injection on diesel combustion and emissions. The fuel-injection system was characterised for all the tested strategies through the measurement of the fuel-injection rate and quantity. In particular, the interaction between the two injection events was identified. The effects of two-stage injection, dwell angle and the interactions between two consecutive injection events on the combustion process and the emissions were investigated in a high-speed direct-injection single-cylinder optical diesel engine using heat-release analysis and high-speed fuel spray and combustion visualisation techniques. The results indicated that the two-stage injection strategy has the potential for simultaneous reduction of nitrogen oxide, soot and unburned hydrocarbon emissions. The results suggested that an optimum fuel quantity in the first injection exists, 0–30%, with which simultaneous reduction of nitrogen oxide, soot and unburned hydrocarbon emissions can be achieved with the added benefits of improved engine performance, fuel economy and combustion noise. However, higher soot emissions were produced, mainly due to the interaction between the two consecutive fuel-injection events whereby the fuel sprays during the second injection were injected into burning regions, as well as reduced soot oxidation due to the continuation of the combustion into the expansion stroke.


The final, definitive version of this paper has been published in International Journal of Engine Research, Vol 15 Issue 1, September 2012, ppublished by SAGE Publishing, All rights reserved.

ID: 2227233