University of Hertfordshire

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Original languageEnglish
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Applied Microbiology
Early online date22 Mar 2022
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 22 Mar 2022


Aims: Phytonematodes are a constraint on crop production and have been controlled using nematicides; these are highly toxic and legislation in Europe and elsewhere is prohibiting their use and alternatives are being sought. Pasteuria penetrans is a hyperparasitic bacterium that form endospores and have potential to control root‐knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), but their attachment to the nematode cuticle is host‐specific. Understanding host specificity has relied upon endospore inhibition bioassays using immunological and biochemical approaches. Phylogenetic analysis of survey sequences has shown P. penetrans to be closely related to Bacillus and to have a diverse range of collagen‐like fibres which we hypothesise to be involved in the endospore adhesion. However, due to the obligately hyperparasitic nature of Pasteuria species, identifying and characterizing these collagenous‐like proteins through gain of function has proved difficult and new approaches are required. 
Methods and Results: Using antibodies raised to synthetic peptides based on Pasteuria collagen‐like genes we show similarities between P. penetrans and the more easily cultured bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis and suggest it be used as a gain of function platform/model. Using immunological approaches similar proteins between P. penetrans and B. thuringiensis are identified and characterized, one >250 kDa and another ~72 kDa are glycosylated with N‐acetylglucosamine and both of which are digested if treated with collagenase. These treatments also affected endospore attachment and suggest these proteins are involved in adhesion of endospores to nematode cuticle. 
Conclusion: There are conserved similarities in the collagen‐like proteins present on the surface of endospores of both P. penetrans and B. thuringiensis. Significance and Impact of Study: As B. thuringiensis is relatively easy to culture and can be transformed, it could be developed as a platform for studying the role of the collagen‐like adhesins from Pasteuria in endospore adhesion.


© 2022 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for Applied Microbiology.

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