University of Hertfordshire

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Original languageEnglish
Article numbere2
Number of pages38
Early online date22 Dec 2021
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 22 Dec 2021


The radiative and jet power in active galactic nuclei is generated by accretion of material on to supermassive galactic-centre black holes. For quasars, where the radiative power is by definition very high, objects with high radio luminosities form 10 per cent of the population, although it is not clear whether this is a stable phase. Traditionally, quasars with high radio luminosities have been thought to present jets with edge-brightened morphology (Fanaroff-Riley II—FR II) due to the limitations of previous radio surveys (i.e., FRIs were not observed as part of the quasar population). The LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) Two-metre Sky Survey (LoTSS) with its unprecedented sensitivity and resolution covering wide sky areas has enabled the first systematic selection and investigation of quasars with core-brightened morphology (Fanaroff-Riley I—FR). We carried out a Very Large Array (VLA) snapshot survey to reveal inner structures of jets in selected quasar candidates; 15 (25 per cent) out of 60 sources show clear inner jet structures that are diagnostic of FRI jets and 13 quasars (∼22 per cent) show extended structures similar to those of FRI jets. Black hole masses and Eddington ratios do not show a clear difference between FRI and FRII quasars. FRII quasars tend to have higher jet powers than FRI quasars. Our results show that the occurrence of FRI jets in powerful radiatively efficient systems is not common, probably mainly due to two factors: galaxy environment and jet power.


© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY)

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