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Focus on over-the-counter drugs’ misuse; a systematic review on antihistamines, cough medicines and decongestants. / Schifano, Fabrizio; Chiappini, Stefania; Miuli, Andrea; Santovito, Monica Chiara; Mosca, Alessio; Santovito, Maria Chiara ; Corkery, John Martin; Guirguis, Amira; Pettorruso, Mauro; di Giannantonio, Massimo; Martinotti, Giovanni.

In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, Vol. 12, 657397, 07.05.2021.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Harvard

Schifano, F, Chiappini, S, Miuli, A, Santovito, MC, Mosca, A, Santovito, MC, Corkery, JM, Guirguis, A, Pettorruso, M, di Giannantonio, M & Martinotti, G 2021, 'Focus on over-the-counter drugs’ misuse; a systematic review on antihistamines, cough medicines and decongestants', Frontiers in Psychiatry, vol. 12, 657397. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.657397

APA

Schifano, F., Chiappini, S., Miuli, A., Santovito, M. C., Mosca, A., Santovito, M. C., Corkery, J. M., Guirguis, A., Pettorruso, M., di Giannantonio, M., & Martinotti, G. (2021). Focus on over-the-counter drugs’ misuse; a systematic review on antihistamines, cough medicines and decongestants. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 12, [657397]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.657397

Vancouver

Author

Schifano, Fabrizio ; Chiappini, Stefania ; Miuli, Andrea ; Santovito, Monica Chiara ; Mosca, Alessio ; Santovito, Maria Chiara ; Corkery, John Martin ; Guirguis, Amira ; Pettorruso, Mauro ; di Giannantonio, Massimo ; Martinotti, Giovanni. / Focus on over-the-counter drugs’ misuse; a systematic review on antihistamines, cough medicines and decongestants. In: Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2021 ; Vol. 12.

Bibtex

@article{6977f8dea8d244239d1b0cb417190783,
title = "Focus on over-the-counter drugs{\textquoteright} misuse; a systematic review on antihistamines, cough medicines and decongestants",
abstract = "Background: Over the past 20 years or so the drug misuse scenario has seen the emergence of both prescription-only and over-the-counter (OTC) medications being reported as ingested for recreational purposes. OTC drugs such as antihistamines, cough/cold medications and decongestants, are reportedly the most popular in being diverted and misused. Objective: Whilst the current related knowledge is limited, the aim was here to examine the published clinical data on OTC misuse, focusing on: antihistamines (e.g., diphenhydramine, promethazine, chlorpheniramine, and dimenhydrinate); dextromethorphan (DXM)- and codeine-based cough medicines; and the nasal decongestant pseudoephedrine. Methods: A systematic literature review was carried out with the help of Scopus; Web of Science databases; and the related grey literature. For data gathering purposes, both the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and PROSPERO guidelines were followed (PROSPERO identification code CRD42020209261). Results: After completion of the selection, eligibility and screening phases, some 92 articles were here taken into consideration; case reports, surveys, and retrospective case series analyses were included. Findings were organised according to the specific OTC recorded. Most articles focussed here on DXM (n=54) and diphenhydramine (n=12). When specified, dosages, route(s) of administration, toxicity symptoms (including both physical and psychiatric ones), and outcomes were here reported. Conclusion: Results from the systematic review showed that the OTC misusing issues are both widespread worldwide and popular; vulnerable categories include adolescents and young adults, although real prevalence figures remain unknown, due to a lack of appropriate monitoring systems. Considering the potential, and at times serious, adverse effects associated with OTC misusing issues, healthcare professionals should be vigilant and ad hoc preventative actions should be designed and implemented.",
keywords = "Drug abuse, Drug misuse, Prescription Drug misuse, Pharming, Drug diversion, over-the-counter drug misuse, addiction, OTC",
author = "Fabrizio Schifano and Stefania Chiappini and Andrea Miuli and Santovito, {Monica Chiara} and Alessio Mosca and Santovito, {Maria Chiara} and Corkery, {John Martin} and Amira Guirguis and Mauro Pettorruso and {di Giannantonio}, Massimo and Giovanni Martinotti",
note = "{\textcopyright} 2021 Schifano, Chiappini, Miuli, Mosca, Santovito, Corkery, Guirguis, Pettorruso, Di Giannantonio and Martinotti. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/",
year = "2021",
month = may,
day = "7",
doi = "10.3389/fpsyt.2021.657397",
language = "English",
volume = "12",
journal = "Frontiers in Psychiatry",
issn = "1664-0640",
publisher = "Frontiers Media S.A.",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Focus on over-the-counter drugs’ misuse; a systematic review on antihistamines, cough medicines and decongestants

AU - Schifano, Fabrizio

AU - Chiappini, Stefania

AU - Miuli, Andrea

AU - Santovito, Monica Chiara

AU - Mosca, Alessio

AU - Santovito, Maria Chiara

AU - Corkery, John Martin

AU - Guirguis, Amira

AU - Pettorruso, Mauro

AU - di Giannantonio, Massimo

AU - Martinotti, Giovanni

N1 - © 2021 Schifano, Chiappini, Miuli, Mosca, Santovito, Corkery, Guirguis, Pettorruso, Di Giannantonio and Martinotti. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

PY - 2021/5/7

Y1 - 2021/5/7

N2 - Background: Over the past 20 years or so the drug misuse scenario has seen the emergence of both prescription-only and over-the-counter (OTC) medications being reported as ingested for recreational purposes. OTC drugs such as antihistamines, cough/cold medications and decongestants, are reportedly the most popular in being diverted and misused. Objective: Whilst the current related knowledge is limited, the aim was here to examine the published clinical data on OTC misuse, focusing on: antihistamines (e.g., diphenhydramine, promethazine, chlorpheniramine, and dimenhydrinate); dextromethorphan (DXM)- and codeine-based cough medicines; and the nasal decongestant pseudoephedrine. Methods: A systematic literature review was carried out with the help of Scopus; Web of Science databases; and the related grey literature. For data gathering purposes, both the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and PROSPERO guidelines were followed (PROSPERO identification code CRD42020209261). Results: After completion of the selection, eligibility and screening phases, some 92 articles were here taken into consideration; case reports, surveys, and retrospective case series analyses were included. Findings were organised according to the specific OTC recorded. Most articles focussed here on DXM (n=54) and diphenhydramine (n=12). When specified, dosages, route(s) of administration, toxicity symptoms (including both physical and psychiatric ones), and outcomes were here reported. Conclusion: Results from the systematic review showed that the OTC misusing issues are both widespread worldwide and popular; vulnerable categories include adolescents and young adults, although real prevalence figures remain unknown, due to a lack of appropriate monitoring systems. Considering the potential, and at times serious, adverse effects associated with OTC misusing issues, healthcare professionals should be vigilant and ad hoc preventative actions should be designed and implemented.

AB - Background: Over the past 20 years or so the drug misuse scenario has seen the emergence of both prescription-only and over-the-counter (OTC) medications being reported as ingested for recreational purposes. OTC drugs such as antihistamines, cough/cold medications and decongestants, are reportedly the most popular in being diverted and misused. Objective: Whilst the current related knowledge is limited, the aim was here to examine the published clinical data on OTC misuse, focusing on: antihistamines (e.g., diphenhydramine, promethazine, chlorpheniramine, and dimenhydrinate); dextromethorphan (DXM)- and codeine-based cough medicines; and the nasal decongestant pseudoephedrine. Methods: A systematic literature review was carried out with the help of Scopus; Web of Science databases; and the related grey literature. For data gathering purposes, both the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and PROSPERO guidelines were followed (PROSPERO identification code CRD42020209261). Results: After completion of the selection, eligibility and screening phases, some 92 articles were here taken into consideration; case reports, surveys, and retrospective case series analyses were included. Findings were organised according to the specific OTC recorded. Most articles focussed here on DXM (n=54) and diphenhydramine (n=12). When specified, dosages, route(s) of administration, toxicity symptoms (including both physical and psychiatric ones), and outcomes were here reported. Conclusion: Results from the systematic review showed that the OTC misusing issues are both widespread worldwide and popular; vulnerable categories include adolescents and young adults, although real prevalence figures remain unknown, due to a lack of appropriate monitoring systems. Considering the potential, and at times serious, adverse effects associated with OTC misusing issues, healthcare professionals should be vigilant and ad hoc preventative actions should be designed and implemented.

KW - Drug abuse

KW - Drug misuse

KW - Prescription Drug misuse

KW - Pharming

KW - Drug diversion

KW - over-the-counter drug misuse

KW - addiction

KW - OTC

U2 - 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.657397

DO - 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.657397

M3 - Review article

VL - 12

JO - Frontiers in Psychiatry

JF - Frontiers in Psychiatry

SN - 1664-0640

M1 - 657397

ER -