University of Hertfordshire

By the same authors


  • Gertrude Uzoewulu
  • Lovett Lawson
  • Ibeh Nnanna
  • Nalin Rastogi
  • Madhu Goyal
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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)74-79
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of Mycobacteriology
Early online date29 Jul 2015
Publication statusPublished - 8 Feb 2017


In this study, we analyzed Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) genetic diversity in Anambra State, Nigeria based on spoligotyping followed by 5-loci exact tandem repeats (ETRs). Spoligotyping of 180 MTC strains isolated in 2009–2011 from pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients led to a total of 31 distinct patterns. A comparison with the SITVIT2 international database showed that all the 31 patterns could be classified as Shared-types (SITs) in this database; briefly, 26/31 SITs (n = 174 isolates) matched a preexisting shared-type in
the database, whereas 5/31 SITs (n = 6 isolates) were newly created due to 2 or more strains belonging to an identical new pattern within this study (SIT3396) or after a match with an orphan in the database (SIT3397, SIT3398, SIT3399 and SIT3400). A total of 18/31 SITs containing 167 or 92.8% isolates were clustered within this study (2–89 isolates per cluster) while 13/31 SITs contained unique strains. Using VNTR typing, a total of 36 distinct patterns were identified; 27 patterns (n = 157 isolates) matched a pattern already reported in the SITVIT2 database. Combination of both the methods generated 47 combined patterns
for the 180 strains: 17 belonged to clustered isolates (n = 127 isolates or 70.5%) while 30 corresponded to as many unique strains (note 23 strains could not be typed using 5-loci ETRs). No correlation was found between the spoligotyping pattern and the HIV status of the patient or drug sensitivity of the strain. This study showed that the LAM10-CAM prototype SIT61 accounted for highest number of isolates (n = 89) in Anambra State, showing its relative
contribution to the TB burden in the study.


Open Access funded by Asian-African Society for Mycobacteriology. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 ( ) which permits others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as they credit the author(s) and the publisher and license their new creations under the identical terms.

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