University of Hertfordshire

  • Junjie Huang
  • Erica On-Ting Chan
  • Xianjing Liu
  • Veeleah Lok
  • Chun Ho Ngai
  • Lin Zhang
  • Wanghong Xu
  • Zhi-Jie Zheng
  • Peter Ka-Fung Chiu
  • Nikhil Vasdev
  • Dmitry Enikeev
  • Shahrokh F Shariat
  • Chi Fai Ng
  • Jeremy Yuen-Chun Teoh
  • Martin C S Wong
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Original languageEnglish
JournalNature Cancer
Publication statusSubmitted - 3 Aug 2022


Importance: Prostate cancer is the leading cause of urological malignancy and the second most common cancer in males.
Objective: We aimed to examine the global disease burden and trends of prostate cancer incidence and mortality by age, and their associations with gross domestic product (GDP), human development index (HDI), smoking, and alcohol drinking.
Design: Trend analysis of global and national cancer registries.
Setting: Population-based.
Data sources: We retrieved the Global Cancer Observatory (GLOBOCAN) database for the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer in 2020; the World Bank for GDP per capita; the United Nations for HDI; the WHO Global Health Observatory for prevalence of smoking and alcohol drinking; the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5), WHO mortality database, for trend analysis.
Main Outcome Measures: We presented the prostate cancer incidence and mortality using age-standardised rates (ASRs). We examined their associations with GDP, HDI, smoking, and alcohol drinking by Spearman’s correlations and multivariable regression. We estimated the 10-year trend of incidence and mortality by joinpoint regression analysis with average annual percent change (AAPCs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) in different age groups.
Results: There was a wide variation in the burden of prostate cancer with the highest mortality found in low-income countries while the highest incidence was observed in high-income countries. We found moderate to high positive correlations for GDP, HDI, and alcohol drinking with prostate cancer incidence, whilst a low negative correlation was observed for smoking. Globally, there was an increasing incidence but decreasing mortality of prostate cancer, and such trends were particularly prominent in Europe. Notably, the incidence increase was also found in the younger population aged <50 years.
Conclusions and Relevance: There was a global variation in the burden of prostate cancer associated with GDP, HDI, smoking, and alcohol drinking. Prostate cancer had an increasing incidence but decreasing mortality. The increasing incidence of prostate cancer in the younger population is worrying and calls for early action on possible preventive interventions.

ID: 31472601