University of Hertfordshire

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Lag-lead based assessment and adaptation of exercise speed for stroke survivors

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)144-154
Number of pages11
JournalRobotics and Autonomous Systems
Early online date8 Sep 2014
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2015


The SCRIPT project aims at delivering machine-mediated hand and wrist exercises to people with stroke in their homes. In this context, adapting the exercise to the individual needs potentially enhances recovery. We designed a system composed of a passive-actuated wearable device, a personal computer and an arm support. The system enables users to exercise their hand and wrist movements by playing interactive games which were developed as part of the project. Movements and their required speed are tailored on the individual's capabilities. During the exercise the system assesses whether the subject is in advance (leading) or in delay (lagging) with respect to a reference trajectory. This information provides input to an adaptive mechanism which changes the required movement speed in order to make the exercise neither too easy nor too challenging. In this paper, we show results of the adaptation process in a study involving seven persons with chronic stroke who completed a six weeks training in their homes. Based on the patterns observed in difficulty and lag-lead score, we defined five session types (challenging, challenging-then supporting, supporting, under-supporting and under-challenging). We show that the mechanism of adaptation has been effective in 195 of 248 (78.6%) sessions. Based on our results, we propose the lag-lead based assessment and adaptation as an auto-tuning tool for machine based exercise, with particular focus on rehabilitation robotics. Also, the classification of sessions among different types can be applied to other studies in order to better understanding the progression of therapy in order to maximize its outcome.


This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of the following article: Angelo Basteris, Sharon M. Mijenhuis, Jaap H. Buurke, Gerdienke B. Prange, and Farshid Amirabdolllahian, ‘Lag–lead based assessment and adaptation of exercise speed for stroke survivors’, Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Vol. 73: 144-154, November 2015. The final, published version is available online at doi:

ID: 9256176