University of Hertfordshire

From the same journal

By the same authors


View graph of relations
Original languageEnglish
Article numbergfac030
Number of pages30
JournalNephrology Dialysis Transplantation
Early online date9 Feb 2022
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 9 Feb 2022


Patient experience is a recognised aspect of quality of care for people with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but current patient-reported experience measures (PREMs) only focus on dialysis care. We developed and validated the Kidney PREM to assess patients’ experience with renal services in secondary care for any CKD stage or treatment (transplant, haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis).

We developed the Kidney PREM in two phases, informed by a multidisciplinary expert group to ensure face validity. We organised three national data collections (2016 to 2018) to investigate item response profiles and to conduct exploratory and confirmatory analyses to assess internal consistency. We also explored content validity in cognitive interviews and evaluated test-retest reliability. Finally, we developed the Kidney PREM Short Form for more frequent measurement of patient experience to inform local service improvements.

We analysed 32,959 responses across data collections, the 2018 collection covering all 71 UK renal centres. The Kidney PREM final version consisted of 38 items grouped in 13 themes, all pertaining to one underlying dimension reflecting the construct of ‘patient experience’ with high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α, .94). The Kidney PREM Short Form consisted of 15 items across the same 13 themes.

The Kidney PREM supports collection of reliable information on patient experience that people with CKD consider relevant, regardless of CKD stage or treatment modality. Kidney PREM data has the potential to guide local and national initiatives to improve patients’ experience with renal services in the UK and other countries.


© The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the ERA. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License (

ID: 26583561