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  • D.J. Stein
  • Peter Szatmari
  • Wolfgang Gaebel
  • Michael Berk
  • Eduard Vieta
  • Mario Maj
  • Ymkje Anna de Vries
  • Annelieke Roest
  • Peter de Jonge
  • Andreas Maercker
  • Chris Brewin
  • Kathleen Pike
  • Carlos M Grilo
  • Naomi Fineberg
  • Peer Briken
  • Peggy T Cohen-Kettenis
  • Geoffrey M. Reed
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Original languageEnglish
Article number21
Pages (from-to)21
Number of pages24
JournalBMC Medicine
Publication statusPublished - 27 Jan 2020


An update of the chapter on Mental, Behavioral and Neurodevelopmental Disorders in the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) is of great interest around the world. The recent approval of the 11th Revision of the ICD (ICD-11) by the World Health Organization (WHO) raises broad questions about the status of nosology of mental disorders as a whole as well as more focused questions regarding changes to the diagnostic guidelines for specific conditions and the implications of these changes for practice and research. This Forum brings together a broad range of experts to reflect on key changes and controversies in the ICD-11 classification of mental disorders. Taken together, there is consensus that the WHO's focus on global applicability and clinical utility in developing the diagnostic guidelines for this chapter will maximize the likelihood that it will be adopted by mental health professionals and administrators. This focus is also expected to enhance the application of the guidelines in non-specialist settings and their usefulness for scaling up evidence-based interventions. The new mental disorders classification in ICD-11 and its accompanying diagnostic guidelines therefore represent an important, albeit iterative, advance for the field.


The Author(s). 2020Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, andreproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link tothe Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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