University of Hertfordshire


  • 2007.12319v1

    Accepted author manuscript, 6.52 MB, PDF document

  • Gwanjeong Kim
  • Kenichi Tatematsu
  • Tie Liu
  • Miss Hee-Weon Yi
  • Jinhua He
  • Naomi Hirano
  • Sheng-Yuan Liu
  • Minho Choi
  • Patricio Sanhueza
  • L. Viktor Toth
  • Neal J. Evans
  • Siyi Feng
  • Mika Juvela
  • Kee-Tae Kim
  • Charlotte Vastel
  • Jeong-Eun Lee
  • Quang Nguyn-Lu'o'ng
  • Miju Kang
  • Isabelle Ristorcelli
  • O. Fehér
  • Yuefang Wu
  • Satoshi Ohashi
  • Ke Wang
  • Ryo Kandori
  • Tomoya Hirota
  • Takeshi Sakai
  • Xing Lu
  • Gary A. Fuller
  • Di Li
  • Hiroko Shinnaga
  • Jungha Kim
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Original languageEnglish
JournalAstrophysical Journal, Supplement Series
Publication statusPublished - 12 Aug 2020


We present the results of a single-pointing survey of 207 dense cores embedded in Planck Galactic Cold Clumps distributed in five different environments ($\lambda$ Orionis, Orion A, B, Galactic plane, and high latitudes) to identify dense cores on the verge of star formation for the study of the initial conditions of star formation. We observed these cores in eight molecular lines at 76-94 GHz using the Nobeyama 45-m telescope. We find that early-type molecules (e.g., CCS) have low detection rates and that late-type molecules (e.g., N$_2$H$^+$, c-C$_3$H$_2$) and deuterated molecules (e.g., N$_2$D$^+$, DNC) have high detection rates, suggesting that most of the cores are chemically evolved. The deuterium fraction (D/H) is found to decrease with increasing distance, indicating that it suffers from differential beam dilution between the D/H pair of lines for distant cores ($>$1 kpc). For $\lambda$ Orionis, Orion A, and B located at similar distances, D/H is not significantly different, suggesting that there is no systematic difference in the observed chemical properties among these three regions. We identify at least eight high D/H cores in the Orion region and two at high latitudes, which are most likely to be close to the onset of star formation. There is no clear evidence of the evolutionary change in turbulence during the starless phase, suggesting that the dissipation of turbulence is not a major mechanism for the beginning of star formation as judged from observations with a beam size of 0.04 pc.


© 2020 IOP Publishing Ltd. This is an author-created, un-copyedited version of an article accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal. IOP Publishing Ltd is not responsible for any errors or omissions in this version of the manuscript or any version derived from it. The definitive publisher authenticated version is available online at

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