University of Hertfordshire


  • Julia Halamova
  • Martin Kanovsky
  • Paul Gilbert
  • Nicholas Troop
  • David Zuroff
  • Nicola Petrocchi
  • Nicola Hermanto
  • Tobias Krieger
  • James Kirby
  • Kenichi Asano
  • Marcela Matos
  • F Yu
  • Marion Sommers-Spijkerman
  • B Shahar
  • Jaskaran Basran
  • Nuriye Kupeli
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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)411-444
Number of pages34
JournalJournal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy
Early online date30 Apr 2019
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2019


The purpose of this study was to examine the measurement invariance of the Forms of Self-Criticising/Attacking & Self-Reassuring Scale (FSCRS) in terms of Item Response Theory differential test functioning in thirteen distinct samples (N = 7714) from twelve different countries. We assessed differential test functioning for the three FSCRS subscales, Inadequate-Self, Hated-Self and Reassured-Self separately. 32 of the 78 pairwise comparisons between samples for Inadequate-Self, 42 of the 78 pairwise comparisons for Reassured-Self and 54 of the 78 pairwise comparisons for Hated-Self demonstrated no differential test functioning, i.e. measurement invariance. Hated-Self was the most invariant of the three subscales, suggesting that self-hatred is similarly perceived across different cultures. Nonetheless, all three subscales of FSCRS are sensitive to cross-cultural differences. Considering the possible cultural and linguistic differences in the expression of self-criticism and self-reassurance, future analyses of the meanings and connotations of these constructs across the world are necessary in order to develop or tailor a scale which allows cross-cultural comparisons of various treatment outcomes related to self-criticism.


© The Author(s) 2019.

ID: 17019182