University of Hertfordshire

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'New/Designer Benzodiazepines': an analysis of the literature and psychonauts’ trip reports

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'New/Designer Benzodiazepines': an analysis of the literature and psychonauts’ trip reports. / Orsolini, Laura; Corkery, John; Chiappini, Stephania; Guirguis, Amira; Vento, Alessandro; De Berardis, Domenico; Papanti, Duccio; Schifano, Fabrizio.

In: Current Neuropharmacology, Vol. 18, No. 9, 10.01.2020, p. 809-837.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

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Orsolini, Laura ; Corkery, John ; Chiappini, Stephania ; Guirguis, Amira ; Vento, Alessandro ; De Berardis, Domenico ; Papanti, Duccio ; Schifano, Fabrizio. / 'New/Designer Benzodiazepines': an analysis of the literature and psychonauts’ trip reports. In: Current Neuropharmacology. 2020 ; Vol. 18, No. 9. pp. 809-837.

Bibtex

@article{bcd27e904b394a8297b409b076ccd0d8,
title = "'New/Designer Benzodiazepines': an analysis of the literature and psychonauts{\textquoteright} trip reports",
abstract = "Background: NPS belonging to the benzodiazepine (BZD) class, e.g., {\textquoteleft}legal/designer BZDs{\textquoteright}/{\textquoteleft}research chemicals{\textquoteright}, have recently emerged in the drug (mainly online/virtual) market. Objective: While certain NPS belonging to the BZD class possess pharmacological profiles similar to controlled pharmaceutical BZDs, clinical and pharmacological profiles of current emerging BZDs are still not well-described. Therefore, there is a need to increase clinicians{\textquoteright}/public health knowledge/awareness, to incentive harm reduction strategies. Method: A comprehensive overview was carried out by using the EMCDDA/EDND database regu-larly monitored by our research team, by specifically looking at the {\textquoteleft}new BZDs{\textquoteright} so far notified. Furthermore, given the limitation of peer-reviewed data published so far, a nonparticipant multilin-gual qualitative netnographic study was conducted to obtain further clinical/pharmacological/ toxicological data, including psychonauts{\textquoteright} online trip reports. Results: First designer BZDs appeared as NPS around 2007. So far, 29 designer BZDs have been notified to the EMCDDA, being some of them extremely powerful, also at lower dosages. They are sold as tablets/powder/pellets/capsules/blotters/liquids, at very affordable prices, and variably ad-ministered. Some are also sold on the illicit drugmarket as counterfeit forms of traditional BZDs or as either adulterants or diluents in heroin or other synthetic opioids/cannabinoids. Nowadays, there is no guarantee of the quality of designer BZDs composition/purification and, hence, most NPS consumers may be inadvertently exposed to unsafe and harmful compounds. Conclusion: Given the limited information on their pharmacology/toxicity, variations in dosage, onset of effects, combination of substances, potency, and general patient or individual variability, the concomitant use of these substances with other drugs entails several and unpredictable risks.",
keywords = "New benzodiazepines, NPS, novel psychoactive substances, benzodiazepines, designer benzodiazepines, synthetic benzodiazepines, Synthetic benzodiazepines, Novel psychoactive substances, Designer benzodiazepines, Benzodiazepines",
author = "Laura Orsolini and John Corkery and Stephania Chiappini and Amira Guirguis and Alessandro Vento and {De Berardis}, Domenico and Duccio Papanti and Fabrizio Schifano",
note = "Copyright{\textcopyright} Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.net.",
year = "2020",
month = jan,
day = "10",
doi = "10.2174/1570159X18666200110121333",
language = "English",
volume = "18",
pages = "809--837",
journal = "Current Neuropharmacology",
issn = "1570-159X",
publisher = "Bentham Science Publishers B.V.",
number = "9",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - 'New/Designer Benzodiazepines': an analysis of the literature and psychonauts’ trip reports

AU - Orsolini, Laura

AU - Corkery, John

AU - Chiappini, Stephania

AU - Guirguis, Amira

AU - Vento, Alessandro

AU - De Berardis, Domenico

AU - Papanti, Duccio

AU - Schifano, Fabrizio

N1 - Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.net.

PY - 2020/1/10

Y1 - 2020/1/10

N2 - Background: NPS belonging to the benzodiazepine (BZD) class, e.g., ‘legal/designer BZDs’/‘research chemicals’, have recently emerged in the drug (mainly online/virtual) market. Objective: While certain NPS belonging to the BZD class possess pharmacological profiles similar to controlled pharmaceutical BZDs, clinical and pharmacological profiles of current emerging BZDs are still not well-described. Therefore, there is a need to increase clinicians’/public health knowledge/awareness, to incentive harm reduction strategies. Method: A comprehensive overview was carried out by using the EMCDDA/EDND database regu-larly monitored by our research team, by specifically looking at the ‘new BZDs’ so far notified. Furthermore, given the limitation of peer-reviewed data published so far, a nonparticipant multilin-gual qualitative netnographic study was conducted to obtain further clinical/pharmacological/ toxicological data, including psychonauts’ online trip reports. Results: First designer BZDs appeared as NPS around 2007. So far, 29 designer BZDs have been notified to the EMCDDA, being some of them extremely powerful, also at lower dosages. They are sold as tablets/powder/pellets/capsules/blotters/liquids, at very affordable prices, and variably ad-ministered. Some are also sold on the illicit drugmarket as counterfeit forms of traditional BZDs or as either adulterants or diluents in heroin or other synthetic opioids/cannabinoids. Nowadays, there is no guarantee of the quality of designer BZDs composition/purification and, hence, most NPS consumers may be inadvertently exposed to unsafe and harmful compounds. Conclusion: Given the limited information on their pharmacology/toxicity, variations in dosage, onset of effects, combination of substances, potency, and general patient or individual variability, the concomitant use of these substances with other drugs entails several and unpredictable risks.

AB - Background: NPS belonging to the benzodiazepine (BZD) class, e.g., ‘legal/designer BZDs’/‘research chemicals’, have recently emerged in the drug (mainly online/virtual) market. Objective: While certain NPS belonging to the BZD class possess pharmacological profiles similar to controlled pharmaceutical BZDs, clinical and pharmacological profiles of current emerging BZDs are still not well-described. Therefore, there is a need to increase clinicians’/public health knowledge/awareness, to incentive harm reduction strategies. Method: A comprehensive overview was carried out by using the EMCDDA/EDND database regu-larly monitored by our research team, by specifically looking at the ‘new BZDs’ so far notified. Furthermore, given the limitation of peer-reviewed data published so far, a nonparticipant multilin-gual qualitative netnographic study was conducted to obtain further clinical/pharmacological/ toxicological data, including psychonauts’ online trip reports. Results: First designer BZDs appeared as NPS around 2007. So far, 29 designer BZDs have been notified to the EMCDDA, being some of them extremely powerful, also at lower dosages. They are sold as tablets/powder/pellets/capsules/blotters/liquids, at very affordable prices, and variably ad-ministered. Some are also sold on the illicit drugmarket as counterfeit forms of traditional BZDs or as either adulterants or diluents in heroin or other synthetic opioids/cannabinoids. Nowadays, there is no guarantee of the quality of designer BZDs composition/purification and, hence, most NPS consumers may be inadvertently exposed to unsafe and harmful compounds. Conclusion: Given the limited information on their pharmacology/toxicity, variations in dosage, onset of effects, combination of substances, potency, and general patient or individual variability, the concomitant use of these substances with other drugs entails several and unpredictable risks.

KW - New benzodiazepines

KW - NPS

KW - novel psychoactive substances

KW - benzodiazepines

KW - designer benzodiazepines

KW - synthetic benzodiazepines

KW - Synthetic benzodiazepines

KW - Novel psychoactive substances

KW - Designer benzodiazepines

KW - Benzodiazepines

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85081205301&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.2174/1570159X18666200110121333

DO - 10.2174/1570159X18666200110121333

M3 - Review article

C2 - 31933443

VL - 18

SP - 809

EP - 837

JO - Current Neuropharmacology

JF - Current Neuropharmacology

SN - 1570-159X

IS - 9

ER -