University of Hertfordshire

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Odd dimensional analogue of the Euler characteristic

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Original languageEnglish
Article number178
JournalJournal of High Energy Physics
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021
Externally publishedYes


When compact manifolds X and Y are both even dimensional, their Euler characteristics obey the Künneth formula χ(X × Y) = χ(X)χ(Y). In terms of the Betti numbers bp(X), χ(X) = Σp(−1)pbp(X), implying that χ(X) = 0 when X is odd dimensional. We seek a linear combination of Betti numbers, called ρ, that obeys an analogous formula ρ(X × Y) = χ(X)ρ(Y) when Y is odd dimensional. The unique solution is ρ(Y) = − Σp(−1)ppbp(Y). Physical applications include: (1) ρ → (−1)mρ under a generalized mirror map in d = 2m + 1 dimensions, in analogy with χ → (−1)mχ in d = 2m; (2) ρ appears naturally in compactifications of M-theory. For example, the 4-dimensional Weyl anomaly for M-theory on X4× Y7 is given by χ(X4)ρ(Y7) = ρ(X4× Y7) and hence vanishes when Y7 is self-mirror. Since, in particular, ρ(Y × S1) = χ(Y), this is consistent with the corresponding anomaly for Type IIA on X4× Y6, given by χ(X4)χ(Y6) = χ(X4× Y6), which vanishes when Y6 is self-mirror; (3) In the partition function of p-form gauge fields, ρ appears in odd dimensions as χ does in even.


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