University of Hertfordshire

From the same journal

By the same authors


  • Sigrun Lange
  • Mark Gallagher
  • Sharad Kholia
  • Uchini S Kosgodage
  • Mariya Hristova
  • John Hardy
  • Jameel M Inal
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Original languageEnglish
Article number1196
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Publication statusPublished - 5 Jun 2017


Exosomes and microvesicles (EMVs) are lipid bilayer-enclosed structures released from cells and participate in cell-to-cell communication via transport of biological molecules. EMVs play important roles in various pathologies, including cancer and neurodegeneration. The regulation of EMV biogenesis is thus of great importance and novel ways for manipulating their release from cells have recently been highlighted. One of the pathways involved in EMV shedding is driven by peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) mediated post-translational protein deimination, which is calcium-dependent and affects cytoskeletal rearrangement amongst other things. Increased PAD expression is observed in various cancers and neurodegeneration and may contribute to increased EMV shedding and disease progression. Here, we review the roles of PADs and EMVs in cancer and neurodegeneration.

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