University of Hertfordshire

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  • 907268

    Accepted author manuscript, 13 MB, PDF document

  • T. Liu
  • Q. Zhang
  • K.-T. Kim
  • Y. Wu
  • C.W. Lee
  • J.-E. Lee
  • K. Tatematsu
  • M. Choi
  • M. Juvela
  • M.A. Thompson
  • P.F. Goldsmith
  • S.Y. Liu
  • H. Naomi
  • P. Koch
  • C. Henkel
  • P. Sanhueza
  • J. He
  • A. Rivera-Ingraham
  • K. Wang
  • M.R. Cunningham
  • And 20 others
  • Y.-W. Tang
  • S.-P. Lai
  • J. Yuan
  • D. Li
  • G. Fuller
  • M. Kang
  • Q. Nguyen Luong
  • H.B. Liu
  • I. Ristorcelli
  • J. Yang
  • Y. Xu
  • T. Hirota
  • D. Mardones
  • S.-L. Qin
  • H.-R. Chen
  • W. Kwon
  • F. Meng
  • H. Zhang
  • M.-R. Kim
  • H.-W. Yi
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Original languageEnglish
Article number7
Number of pages28
JournalAstrophysical Journal, Supplement Series
Publication statusPublished - 14 Jan 2016


We are performing a series of observations with ground-based telescopes toward Planck Galactic cold clumps (PGCCs) in the λ Orionis complex in order to systematically investigate the effects of stellar feedback. In the particular case of PGCC G192.32-11.88, we discovered an extremely young Class 0 protostellar object (G192N) and a proto-brown dwarf candidate (G192S). G192N and G192S are located in a gravitationally bound bright-rimmed clump. The velocity and temperature gradients seen in line emission of CO isotopologues indicate that PGCC G192.32-11.88 is externally heated and compressed. G192N probably has the lowest bolometric luminosity (˜0.8 {L}⊙ ) and accretion rate (6.3 × 10-7 {M}⊙ yr-1) when compared with other young Class 0 sources (e.g., PACS Bright Red Sources) in the Orion complex. It has slightly larger internal luminosity (0.21 ± 0.01 {L}⊙ ) and outflow velocity (˜14 km s-1) than the predictions of first hydrostatic cores (FHSCs). G192N might be among the youngest Class 0 sources, which are slightly more evolved than an FHSC. Considering its low internal luminosity (0.08 ± 0.01 {L}⊙ ) and accretion rate (2.8 × 10-8 {M}⊙ yr-1), G192S is an ideal proto-brown dwarf candidate. The star formation efficiency (˜0.3%-0.4%) and core formation efficiency (˜1%) in PGCC G192.32-11.88 are significantly smaller than in other giant molecular clouds or filaments, indicating that the star formation therein is greatly suppressed owing to stellar feedback.

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