University of Hertfordshire

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)55-68
JournalInternational Journal of Agricultural Sustainability
Early online date11 Jul 2014
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jan 2015


The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive systematic review to identify feed additives, more specifically those listed on Annex 1 of the European Union Register of Feed Additives, that have potential to reduce polluting emissions from livestock and to conduct a very simple meta-analysis of the collated data in order to identity the potential efficacy of these substances and agents. The review identified 37 substances and agents offering benefits for six different potentially polluting emissions: gaseous releases of ammonia, methane, carbon dioxide, odours and excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus for four animal groups: cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry. The meta-analysis showed that very considerable reductions in these emissions may be achievable, particularly in respect to ammonia and greenhouse gases. Estimates based on modest levels of usage in the European Union suggest that a reduction greater than 168 kt ammonia and 7100 kt methane could be achievable. However, in order to maximise these benefits regulators and the wider-industry need to implement policies, processes and incentives to encourage greater uptake.


This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis Group in International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability on 2 January 2015, available online:

ID: 2256969