University of Hertfordshire

Privacy and Usability of Image and Text Based Challenge Questions Authentication in Online Examination

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


  • Abrar Ullah
  • Hannan Xiao
  • Mariana Lilley
  • Trevor Barker
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Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationInt Conf on Education Technologies and Computers (ICETC2014)
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2014
EventInt Conf on Education Technologies and Computers (ICETC2014) - Lodz, Poland
Duration: 22 Sep 201424 Sep 2014


ConferenceInt Conf on Education Technologies and Computers (ICETC2014)


In many online examinations, physical invigilation is often replaced with traditional authentication approaches for student identification. Secure and usable authentication approaches are important for high stake online examinations. A Profile Based Authentication Framework (PBAF) was developed and implemented in a real online learning course embedded with summative online examination. Based on users’ experience of using the PBAF in an online course, online questionnaires were used to collect participants' feedback on effectiveness, layout and appearance, user satisfaction, distraction and privacy concerns. Based on overall findings of the quantitative analysis, there was a positive feedback on the use of a hybrid approach utilizing image and text based challenge questions for better usability. However, the number of questions presented during learning and examination processes were reported to be too many and caused distraction. Participants expressed a degree of concern on sharing personal and academic information with little or no privacy concern on using favorite questions

ID: 7351746