University of Hertfordshire

From the same journal

By the same authors

Public Perceptions toward Kratom (Mitragyna Speciosa) Use in Malaysia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  • Darshan Singh
  • Suresh Narayanan
  • Shariffah Suraya
  • Azlin Saref
  • Oliver Grundmann
  • Walter C. Prozialeck
  • Ornella Corazza
  • Marc T. Swogger
  • O. Griffin
  • Vicknasingam Balasingam
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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)282-288
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Psychoactive Drugs
Early online date10 Mar 2020
Publication statusPublished - 26 May 2020


Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa), an indigenous medicinal plant of Southeast Asia, is believed to be harmful. We compared the perceptions toward kratom use among kratom users and non-users in Malaysia. 356 respondents (137 kratom users and 219 non-users) were recruited for this cross-sectional study. The majority of respondents were male (60%, n = 212/356), Malays (88%), and 51% were ≥37 years old. Non-users showed higher unadjusted odds of reporting a perception that kratom use can cause addiction (OR = 6.72, CI: 3.91–11.54, p < .0001), withdrawal symptoms (OR = 7.58, CI: 4.62–12.42, p < .0001), illicit drug use problems (OR = 10.12, CI: 6.14–16.68, p < .0001), impaired social-functioning (OR = 12.05, CI: 7.24–20.05, p < .0001), and health problems (OR = 10.44, CI: 6.32–17.24, p < .0001). Similarly, non-users viewed kratom policies differently from kratom users, displaying increased odds of reporting the belief that kratom use and sales must be regulated with stringent laws (OR = 5.75, CI: 3.61–9.18, p < .0001), and kratom should be regulated instead under the Dangerous Drugs Act 1952 to overcome kratom use problems (OR = 8.26, CI: 4.94–13.82, p < .0001). Because of the disconnect in kratom use perceptions and personal experiences between kratom users and non-users, hastily criminalizing kratom without investigating carefully its scientific merits can significantly impede future kratom research.

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