University of Hertfordshire

By the same authors

Quantum Randomness in Cryptography—A Survey of Cryptosystems, RNG-Based Ciphers, and QRNGs

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


View graph of relations
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere358
Number of pages18
Early online date27 Jul 2022
Publication statusPublished - 27 Jul 2022


Cryptography is the study and practice of secure communication with digital data and focuses on confidentiality, integrity, and authentication. Random number generators (RNGs) generate random numbers to enhance security. Even though the cryptographic algorithms are public and their strength depends on the keys, cryptoanalysis of encrypted ciphers can significantly contribute to the unveiling of the cipher’s key. Therefore, to ensure high data security over a network, researchers need to improve the randomness of keys as they develop cryptosystems. Quantum particles have a leading edge in advancing RNG technology as they can provide true randomness, unlike pseudo-random numbers generators (PRNGs). In order to increase the level of the security of cryptographic systems based on random numbers, this survey focuses on three objectives: Cryptosystems with related cryptographic attacks, RNG-based cryptosystems, and the design of quantum random number generators (QRNGs). This survey aims to provide researchers with information about the importance of RNG-based ciphers and various research techniques for QRNGs that can incorporate quantum-based true randomness in cryptosystems.


© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (

ID: 28000497