University of Hertfordshire

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By the same authors


  • Saba Anwer
  • Asim Waris
  • Syed Omer Gilani
  • Javaid Iqbal
  • Nusratnaaz Shaikh
  • Amit N. Pujari
  • Imran Khan Niazi
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Original languageEnglish
Article numbere190
Number of pages20
Publication statusPublished - 19 Jan 2022


Stroke has been one of the leading causes of disability worldwide and is still a social health issue. Keeping in view the importance of physical rehabilitation of stroke patients, an analytical review has been compiled in which different therapies have been reviewed for their effectiveness, such as functional electric stimulation (FES), noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) including transcranial direct current stimulation (t-DCS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (t-MS), invasive epidural cortical stimulation, virtual reality (VR) rehabilitation, task-oriented therapy, robot-assisted training, tele rehabilitation, and cerebral plasticity for the rehabilitation of upper extremity motor impairment. New therapeutic rehabilitation techniques are also being investigated, such as VR. This literature review mainly focuses on the randomized controlled studies, reviews, and statistical meta-analyses associated with motor rehabilitation after stroke. Moreover, with the increasing prevalence rate and the adverse socio-economic consequences of stroke, a statistical analysis covering its economic factors such as treatment, medication and post-stroke care services, and risk factors (modifiable and non-modifiable) have also been discussed. This review suggests that if the prevalence rate of the disease remains persistent, a considerable increase in the stroke population is expected by 2025, causing a substantial economic burden on society, as the survival rate of stroke is high compared to other diseases. Compared to all the other therapies, VR has now emerged as the modern approach towards rehabilitation motor activity of impaired limbs. A range of randomized controlled studies and experimental trials were reviewed to analyse the effectiveness of VR as a rehabilitative treatment with considerable satisfactory results. However, more clinical controlled trials are required to establish a strong evidence base for VR to be widely accepted as a preferred rehabilitation therapy for stroke.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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