University of Hertfordshire

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Solidarity revisited: group-level effects on individual-level union voting

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • A.D. Martinez
  • J. Fiorito
  • G.R. Ferris
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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)61-74
JournalJournal of Labor Research
Publication statusPublished - 2011


Rooted in the theory of planned behavior, our empirical reinvestigation of archived union certification election data provided strong evidence that workgroup solidarity was a significant predictor of individual voting behavior. Specifically, group-level attitudes toward unions accounted for individual voting behaviors beyond the individual-level attitudes toward unions. This study offers a meaningful increment to our knowledge as it provides a quantification of the extent that employees are willing to, and actually, comply with subjective norms. Important practical implications for both unions and employers as well as directions for future research are discussed.


“The original publication is available at”. Copyright Springer

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