University of Hertfordshire

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1101-1111
Number of pages11
Early online date19 Jul 2021
Publication statusPublished - 19 Jul 2021


Aim: Determination of plasma protein binding (PPB) is considered vital for better understanding of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic activities of drugs due to the role of free concentration in pharmacological response. 
Methodology & results: Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was investigated for measurement of PPB from biological matrices and compared with a gold standard approach (rapid equilibrium dialysis [RED]). 
Discussion & conclusion: SPME-derived values of PPB correlated well with literature values, and those determined by RED. Respectively, average protein binding across three concentrations by RED and SPME was 33.1 and 31.7% for metoprolol, 89.0 and 86.6% for propranolol and 99.2 and 99.0% for diclofenac. This study generates some evidence for SPME as an alternative platform for the determination of PPB.


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