University of Hertfordshire

  • Boyd Swinburn
  • Vivica Kraak
  • Steven Allender
  • Ariadni Kapetanaki
  • William Dietz
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Original languageEnglish
Commissioning bodyThe Lancet Commission on Obesity
Number of pages56
Publication statusPublished - 23 Feb 2019

Publication series

NameThe Lancet
PublisherElsevier Limited
ISSN (Print)0140-6736


Malnutrition in all its forms, including obesity, undernutrition, and other dietary risks, is the leading cause of poor health globally. In the near future, the health effects of climate change will considerably compound these health challenges. Climate change can be considered a pandemic because of its sweeping effects on the health of humans and the natural systems we depend on (ie, planetary health). These three pandemics—obesity, undernutrition, and climate change—represent The Global Syndemic that affects most people in every country and region worldwide. They constitute a syndemic, or synergy of epidemics, because they co-occur in time and place, interact with each other to produce complex sequelae, and share common underlying societal drivers. This Commission recommends comprehensive actions to address obesity within the context of The Global Syndemic, which represents the paramount health challenge for humans, the environment, and our planet in the 21st century.


© 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


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