University of Hertfordshire

From the same journal

From the same journal

By the same authors

The HP2 Survey - IV. The Pipe nebula: Effective dust temperatures in dense cores

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • 1807.04286v1

    Accepted author manuscript, 13.6 MB, PDF document

  • Birgit Hasenberger
  • Marco Lombardi
  • João Alves
  • Jan Forbrich
  • Alvaro Hacar
  • Charles J. Lada
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Original languageEnglish
Article numberA24
JournalAstronomy & Astrophysics
Early online date16 Jul 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2018


Multi-wavelength observations in the sub-millimeter regime provide information on the distribution of both the dust column density and the effective dust temperature in molecular clouds. In this study, we created high-resolution and high-dynamic-range maps of the Pipe nebula region and explored the value of dust-temperature measurements in particular towards the dense cores embedded in the cloud. The maps are based on data from the Herschel and Planck satellites, and calibrated with a near-infrared extinction map based on 2MASS observations. We have considered a sample of previously defined cores and found that the majority of core regions contain at least one local temperature minimum. Moreover, we observed an anti-correlation between column density and temperature. The slope of this anti-correlation is dependent on the region boundaries and can be used as a metric to distinguish dense from diffuse areas in the cloud if systematic effects are addressed appropriately. Employing dust-temperature data thus allows us to draw conclusions on the thermodynamically dominant processes in this sample of cores: External heating by the interstellar radiation field and shielding by the surrounding medium. In addition, we have taken a first step towards a physically motivated core definition by recognising that the column-densityerature anti-correlation is sensitive to the core boundaries. Dust-temperature maps therefore clearly contain valuable information about the physical state of the observed medium.


14 pages, 22 figures. Accepted for publication in Astronomy & Astrophysics Reproduced with permission from Astronomy & Astrophysics. © 2018 ESO

ID: 15093164