University of Hertfordshire

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The influence of entrepreneurial personality on franchisee performance: A cross-cultural analysis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Anna Watson
  • Olufunmilola (Lola) Dada
  • Begona Lopez-Fernandez
  • Rozenn Perrigot
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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)605-628
Number of pages24
JournalInternational Small Business Journal
Early online date1 May 2020
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 1 May 2020


Through a survey-based study of 761 franchisees from four countries, the United States, the United Kingdom, France and Spain – this research examines how a franchisee’s entrepreneurial personality traits affects the financial and relational performance of franchise units. While there is consensus that franchisee characteristics are important for successful franchise networks, there is a long-standing debate within the franchise literature as to the status, and indeed desirability, of franchisees as entrepreneurs. First, we consider how the personality traits of proactivity, innovativeness and locus of control influence the manifestation of entrepreneurial behaviours within the franchise unit, and both the direct and indirect relationships with unit performance. Second, we explore these relationships in two contexts, one associated with high entrepreneurial values (the United States and the United Kingdom) and another with low entrepreneurial values (France and Spain) to determine if the results are consistent across cultures which value entrepreneurship differently. The results suggest that franchisee performance, in terms of both financial performance and relationship quality, are indirectly enhanced by a proactive disposition, mediated by entrepreneurial behaviours. A direct positive relationship was found between locus of control and performance outcomes, but interestingly, franchisees with more innovative personalities performed less well financially. The relationships between franchisee personality, entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and performance were found to be largely consistent across the two cultural groups.


Funding Information: The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This research was partially supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (ECO2017-85704-R). Publisher Copyright: © The Author(s) 2020.

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