University of Hertfordshire

From the same journal

From the same journal

By the same authors

The JCMT Transient Survey: Four Year Summary of Monitoring the Submillimeter Variability of Protostars

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  • Yong-Hee Lee
  • Doug Johnstone
  • Jeong-Eun Lee
  • Gregory Herczeg
  • Steve Mairs
  • Carlos Contreras-Peña
  • Jennifer Hatchell
  • Tim Naylor
  • Graham S. Bell
  • Tyler L. Bourke
  • Colton Broughton
  • Logan Francis
  • Aashish Gupta
  • Daniel Harsono
  • Sheng-Yuan Liu
  • Geumsook Park
  • Spencer Plovie
  • Gerald H. Moriarty-Schieven
  • Aleks Scholz
  • Tanvi Sharma
  • Paula Stella Teixeira
  • Yao-Te Wang
  • Yuri Aikawa
  • Geoffrey C. Bower
  • Huei-Ru Vivien Chen
  • Jaehan Bae
  • Giseon Baek
  • Scott Chapman
  • Wen Ping Chen
  • Fujun Du
  • Somnath Dutta
  • Zhen Guo
  • Shu-ichiro Inutsuka
  • Miju Kang
  • Helen Kirk
  • Yi-Jehng Kuan
  • Woojin Kwon
  • Shih-Ping Lai
  • Bhavana Lalchand
  • James M. M. Lane
  • Chin-Fei Lee
  • Tie Liu
  • Oscar Morata
  • Samuel Pearson
  • Andy Pon
  • Dipen Sahu
  • Hsien Shang
  • Dimitris Stamatellos
  • Shih-Yun Tang
  • Ziyan Xu
  • Hyunju Yoo
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Original languageEnglish
JournalThe Astrophysical Journal
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 22 Jul 2021


We present the four-year survey results of monthly submillimeter monitoring of eight nearby ($<500 $pc) star-forming regions by the JCMT Transient Survey. We apply the Lomb-Scargle Periodogram technique to search for and characterize variability on 295 submillimeter peaks brighter than 0.14 Jy beam$^{-1}$, including 22 disk sources (Class II), 83 protostars (Class 0/I), and 190 starless sources. We uncover 18 secular variables, all of them protostars. No single-epoch burst or drop events and no inherently stochastic sources are observed. We classify the secular variables by their timescales into three groups: Periodic, Curved, and Linear. For the Curved and Periodic cases, the detectable fractional amplitude, with respect to mean peak brightness, is $\sim4$ % for sources brighter than $\sim$ 0.5 Jy beam$^{-1}$. Limiting our sample to only these bright sources, the observed variable fraction is 37 % (16 out of 43). Considering source evolution, we find a similar fraction of bright variables for both Class 0 and Class I. Using an empirically motivated conversion from submillimeter variability to variation in mass accretion rate, six sources (7 % of our full sample) are predicted to have years-long accretion events during which the excess mass accreted reaches more than 40 % above the total quiescently accreted mass: two previously known eruptive Class I sources, V1647 Ori and EC 53 (V371 Ser), and four Class 0 sources, HOPS 356, HOPS 373, HOPS 383, and West 40. Considering the full protostellar ensemble, the importance of episodic accretion on few years timescale is negligible, only a few percent of the assembled mass. However, given that this accretion is dominated by events of order the observing time-window, it remains uncertain as to whether the importance of episodic events will continue to rise with decades-long monitoring.

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