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The JCMT Transient Survey: Four Year Summary of Monitoring the Submillimeter Variability of Protostars

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The JCMT Transient Survey : Four Year Summary of Monitoring the Submillimeter Variability of Protostars. / Lee, Yong-Hee; Johnstone, Doug; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Herczeg, Gregory; Mairs, Steve; Contreras-Peña, Carlos; Hatchell, Jennifer; Naylor, Tim; Bell, Graham S.; Bourke, Tyler L.; Broughton, Colton; Francis, Logan; Gupta, Aashish; Harsono, Daniel; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Park, Geumsook; Plovie, Spencer; Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald H.; Scholz, Aleks; Sharma, Tanvi; Teixeira, Paula Stella; Wang, Yao-Te; Aikawa, Yuri; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Chen, Huei-Ru Vivien; Bae, Jaehan; Baek, Giseon; Chapman, Scott; Chen, Wen Ping; Du, Fujun; Dutta, Somnath; Forbrich, Jan; Guo, Zhen; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Kang, Miju; Kirk, Helen; Kuan, Yi-Jehng; Kwon, Woojin; Lai, Shih-Ping; Lalchand, Bhavana; Lane, James M. M.; Lee, Chin-Fei; Liu, Tie; Morata, Oscar; Pearson, Samuel; Pon, Andy; Sahu, Dipen; Shang, Hsien; Stamatellos, Dimitris; Tang, Shih-Yun; Xu, Ziyan; Yoo, Hyunju.

In: The Astrophysical Journal, 22.07.2021.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Harvard

Lee, Y-H, Johnstone, D, Lee, J-E, Herczeg, G, Mairs, S, Contreras-Peña, C, Hatchell, J, Naylor, T, Bell, GS, Bourke, TL, Broughton, C, Francis, L, Gupta, A, Harsono, D, Liu, S-Y, Park, G, Plovie, S, Moriarty-Schieven, GH, Scholz, A, Sharma, T, Teixeira, PS, Wang, Y-T, Aikawa, Y, Bower, GC, Chen, H-RV, Bae, J, Baek, G, Chapman, S, Chen, WP, Du, F, Dutta, S, Forbrich, J, Guo, Z, Inutsuka, S, Kang, M, Kirk, H, Kuan, Y-J, Kwon, W, Lai, S-P, Lalchand, B, Lane, JMM, Lee, C-F, Liu, T, Morata, O, Pearson, S, Pon, A, Sahu, D, Shang, H, Stamatellos, D, Tang, S-Y, Xu, Z & Yoo, H 2021, 'The JCMT Transient Survey: Four Year Summary of Monitoring the Submillimeter Variability of Protostars', The Astrophysical Journal.

APA

Lee, Y-H., Johnstone, D., Lee, J-E., Herczeg, G., Mairs, S., Contreras-Peña, C., Hatchell, J., Naylor, T., Bell, G. S., Bourke, T. L., Broughton, C., Francis, L., Gupta, A., Harsono, D., Liu, S-Y., Park, G., Plovie, S., Moriarty-Schieven, G. H., Scholz, A., ... Yoo, H. (Accepted/In press). The JCMT Transient Survey: Four Year Summary of Monitoring the Submillimeter Variability of Protostars. The Astrophysical Journal.

Vancouver

Lee Y-H, Johnstone D, Lee J-E, Herczeg G, Mairs S, Contreras-Peña C et al. The JCMT Transient Survey: Four Year Summary of Monitoring the Submillimeter Variability of Protostars. The Astrophysical Journal. 2021 Jul 22.

Author

Lee, Yong-Hee ; Johnstone, Doug ; Lee, Jeong-Eun ; Herczeg, Gregory ; Mairs, Steve ; Contreras-Peña, Carlos ; Hatchell, Jennifer ; Naylor, Tim ; Bell, Graham S. ; Bourke, Tyler L. ; Broughton, Colton ; Francis, Logan ; Gupta, Aashish ; Harsono, Daniel ; Liu, Sheng-Yuan ; Park, Geumsook ; Plovie, Spencer ; Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald H. ; Scholz, Aleks ; Sharma, Tanvi ; Teixeira, Paula Stella ; Wang, Yao-Te ; Aikawa, Yuri ; Bower, Geoffrey C. ; Chen, Huei-Ru Vivien ; Bae, Jaehan ; Baek, Giseon ; Chapman, Scott ; Chen, Wen Ping ; Du, Fujun ; Dutta, Somnath ; Forbrich, Jan ; Guo, Zhen ; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro ; Kang, Miju ; Kirk, Helen ; Kuan, Yi-Jehng ; Kwon, Woojin ; Lai, Shih-Ping ; Lalchand, Bhavana ; Lane, James M. M. ; Lee, Chin-Fei ; Liu, Tie ; Morata, Oscar ; Pearson, Samuel ; Pon, Andy ; Sahu, Dipen ; Shang, Hsien ; Stamatellos, Dimitris ; Tang, Shih-Yun ; Xu, Ziyan ; Yoo, Hyunju. / The JCMT Transient Survey : Four Year Summary of Monitoring the Submillimeter Variability of Protostars. In: The Astrophysical Journal. 2021.

Bibtex

@article{a5bfac3dc7ad4a75b5f60cb79da3c987,
title = "The JCMT Transient Survey: Four Year Summary of Monitoring the Submillimeter Variability of Protostars",
abstract = " We present the four-year survey results of monthly submillimeter monitoring of eight nearby ($<500 $pc) star-forming regions by the JCMT Transient Survey. We apply the Lomb-Scargle Periodogram technique to search for and characterize variability on 295 submillimeter peaks brighter than 0.14 Jy beam$^{-1}$, including 22 disk sources (Class II), 83 protostars (Class 0/I), and 190 starless sources. We uncover 18 secular variables, all of them protostars. No single-epoch burst or drop events and no inherently stochastic sources are observed. We classify the secular variables by their timescales into three groups: Periodic, Curved, and Linear. For the Curved and Periodic cases, the detectable fractional amplitude, with respect to mean peak brightness, is $\sim4$ % for sources brighter than $\sim$ 0.5 Jy beam$^{-1}$. Limiting our sample to only these bright sources, the observed variable fraction is 37 % (16 out of 43). Considering source evolution, we find a similar fraction of bright variables for both Class 0 and Class I. Using an empirically motivated conversion from submillimeter variability to variation in mass accretion rate, six sources (7 % of our full sample) are predicted to have years-long accretion events during which the excess mass accreted reaches more than 40 % above the total quiescently accreted mass: two previously known eruptive Class I sources, V1647 Ori and EC 53 (V371 Ser), and four Class 0 sources, HOPS 356, HOPS 373, HOPS 383, and West 40. Considering the full protostellar ensemble, the importance of episodic accretion on few years timescale is negligible, only a few percent of the assembled mass. However, given that this accretion is dominated by events of order the observing time-window, it remains uncertain as to whether the importance of episodic events will continue to rise with decades-long monitoring. ",
keywords = "astro-ph.SR, astro-ph.GA",
author = "Yong-Hee Lee and Doug Johnstone and Jeong-Eun Lee and Gregory Herczeg and Steve Mairs and Carlos Contreras-Pe{\~n}a and Jennifer Hatchell and Tim Naylor and Bell, {Graham S.} and Bourke, {Tyler L.} and Colton Broughton and Logan Francis and Aashish Gupta and Daniel Harsono and Sheng-Yuan Liu and Geumsook Park and Spencer Plovie and Moriarty-Schieven, {Gerald H.} and Aleks Scholz and Tanvi Sharma and Teixeira, {Paula Stella} and Yao-Te Wang and Yuri Aikawa and Bower, {Geoffrey C.} and Chen, {Huei-Ru Vivien} and Jaehan Bae and Giseon Baek and Scott Chapman and Chen, {Wen Ping} and Fujun Du and Somnath Dutta and Jan Forbrich and Zhen Guo and Shu-ichiro Inutsuka and Miju Kang and Helen Kirk and Yi-Jehng Kuan and Woojin Kwon and Shih-Ping Lai and Bhavana Lalchand and Lane, {James M. M.} and Chin-Fei Lee and Tie Liu and Oscar Morata and Samuel Pearson and Andy Pon and Dipen Sahu and Hsien Shang and Dimitris Stamatellos and Shih-Yun Tang and Ziyan Xu and Hyunju Yoo",
year = "2021",
month = jul,
day = "22",
language = "English",
journal = "The Astrophysical Journal",
issn = "0004-637X",
publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - The JCMT Transient Survey

T2 - Four Year Summary of Monitoring the Submillimeter Variability of Protostars

AU - Lee, Yong-Hee

AU - Johnstone, Doug

AU - Lee, Jeong-Eun

AU - Herczeg, Gregory

AU - Mairs, Steve

AU - Contreras-Peña, Carlos

AU - Hatchell, Jennifer

AU - Naylor, Tim

AU - Bell, Graham S.

AU - Bourke, Tyler L.

AU - Broughton, Colton

AU - Francis, Logan

AU - Gupta, Aashish

AU - Harsono, Daniel

AU - Liu, Sheng-Yuan

AU - Park, Geumsook

AU - Plovie, Spencer

AU - Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald H.

AU - Scholz, Aleks

AU - Sharma, Tanvi

AU - Teixeira, Paula Stella

AU - Wang, Yao-Te

AU - Aikawa, Yuri

AU - Bower, Geoffrey C.

AU - Chen, Huei-Ru Vivien

AU - Bae, Jaehan

AU - Baek, Giseon

AU - Chapman, Scott

AU - Chen, Wen Ping

AU - Du, Fujun

AU - Dutta, Somnath

AU - Forbrich, Jan

AU - Guo, Zhen

AU - Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

AU - Kang, Miju

AU - Kirk, Helen

AU - Kuan, Yi-Jehng

AU - Kwon, Woojin

AU - Lai, Shih-Ping

AU - Lalchand, Bhavana

AU - Lane, James M. M.

AU - Lee, Chin-Fei

AU - Liu, Tie

AU - Morata, Oscar

AU - Pearson, Samuel

AU - Pon, Andy

AU - Sahu, Dipen

AU - Shang, Hsien

AU - Stamatellos, Dimitris

AU - Tang, Shih-Yun

AU - Xu, Ziyan

AU - Yoo, Hyunju

PY - 2021/7/22

Y1 - 2021/7/22

N2 - We present the four-year survey results of monthly submillimeter monitoring of eight nearby ($<500 $pc) star-forming regions by the JCMT Transient Survey. We apply the Lomb-Scargle Periodogram technique to search for and characterize variability on 295 submillimeter peaks brighter than 0.14 Jy beam$^{-1}$, including 22 disk sources (Class II), 83 protostars (Class 0/I), and 190 starless sources. We uncover 18 secular variables, all of them protostars. No single-epoch burst or drop events and no inherently stochastic sources are observed. We classify the secular variables by their timescales into three groups: Periodic, Curved, and Linear. For the Curved and Periodic cases, the detectable fractional amplitude, with respect to mean peak brightness, is $\sim4$ % for sources brighter than $\sim$ 0.5 Jy beam$^{-1}$. Limiting our sample to only these bright sources, the observed variable fraction is 37 % (16 out of 43). Considering source evolution, we find a similar fraction of bright variables for both Class 0 and Class I. Using an empirically motivated conversion from submillimeter variability to variation in mass accretion rate, six sources (7 % of our full sample) are predicted to have years-long accretion events during which the excess mass accreted reaches more than 40 % above the total quiescently accreted mass: two previously known eruptive Class I sources, V1647 Ori and EC 53 (V371 Ser), and four Class 0 sources, HOPS 356, HOPS 373, HOPS 383, and West 40. Considering the full protostellar ensemble, the importance of episodic accretion on few years timescale is negligible, only a few percent of the assembled mass. However, given that this accretion is dominated by events of order the observing time-window, it remains uncertain as to whether the importance of episodic events will continue to rise with decades-long monitoring.

AB - We present the four-year survey results of monthly submillimeter monitoring of eight nearby ($<500 $pc) star-forming regions by the JCMT Transient Survey. We apply the Lomb-Scargle Periodogram technique to search for and characterize variability on 295 submillimeter peaks brighter than 0.14 Jy beam$^{-1}$, including 22 disk sources (Class II), 83 protostars (Class 0/I), and 190 starless sources. We uncover 18 secular variables, all of them protostars. No single-epoch burst or drop events and no inherently stochastic sources are observed. We classify the secular variables by their timescales into three groups: Periodic, Curved, and Linear. For the Curved and Periodic cases, the detectable fractional amplitude, with respect to mean peak brightness, is $\sim4$ % for sources brighter than $\sim$ 0.5 Jy beam$^{-1}$. Limiting our sample to only these bright sources, the observed variable fraction is 37 % (16 out of 43). Considering source evolution, we find a similar fraction of bright variables for both Class 0 and Class I. Using an empirically motivated conversion from submillimeter variability to variation in mass accretion rate, six sources (7 % of our full sample) are predicted to have years-long accretion events during which the excess mass accreted reaches more than 40 % above the total quiescently accreted mass: two previously known eruptive Class I sources, V1647 Ori and EC 53 (V371 Ser), and four Class 0 sources, HOPS 356, HOPS 373, HOPS 383, and West 40. Considering the full protostellar ensemble, the importance of episodic accretion on few years timescale is negligible, only a few percent of the assembled mass. However, given that this accretion is dominated by events of order the observing time-window, it remains uncertain as to whether the importance of episodic events will continue to rise with decades-long monitoring.

KW - astro-ph.SR

KW - astro-ph.GA

M3 - Article

JO - The Astrophysical Journal

JF - The Astrophysical Journal

SN - 0004-637X

ER -