University of Hertfordshire

From the same journal

From the same journal

By the same authors

The Planck clusters in the LOFAR sky. I. LoTSS-DR2 new detections and sample overview

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • 2202.11720v1

    Accepted author manuscript, 24.5 MB, PDF document

  • A. Botteon
  • T. W. Shimwell
  • R. Cassano
  • V. Cuciti
  • X. Zhang
  • L. Bruno
  • L. Camillini
  • R. Natale
  • A. Jones
  • F. Gastaldello
  • A. Simionescu
  • M. Rossetti
  • H. Akamatsu
  • R. J. van Weeren
  • G. Brunetti
  • M. Brüggen
  • C. Groenveld
  • D. N. Hoang
  • A. Ignesti
  • G. Di Gennaro
  • A. Bonafede
  • A. Drabent
  • H. J. A. Röttgering
  • M. Hoeft
  • F. de Gasperin
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Original languageEnglish
JournalAstronomy & Astrophysics
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 23 Feb 2022


Relativistic electrons and magnetic fields permeate the intra-cluster medium (ICM) and manifest themselves as diffuse sources of synchrotron emission observable at radio wavelengths, namely radio halos and radio relics. Although there is broad consensus that the formation of these sources is connected to turbulence and shocks in the ICM, the details of the required particle acceleration, the strength and morphology of the magnetic field in the cluster volume, and the influence of other sources of high-energy particles are poorly known. Sufficiently large samples of radio halos and relics, which would allow us to examine the variation among the source population and pinpoint their commonalities and differences, are still missing. At present, large numbers of these sources are easiest to detect at low radio frequencies, where they shine brightly. We examined the low-frequency radio emission from all 309 clusters in the second catalog of Planck Sunyaev Zel'dovich detected sources that lie within the 5634 deg$^2$ covered by the Second Data Release of the LOFAR Two-meter Sky Survey (LoTSS-DR2). We produced LOFAR images at different resolutions, with and without discrete sources subtracted, and created overlays with optical and X-ray images before classifying the diffuse sources in the ICM, guided by a decision tree. Overall, we found 83 clusters that host a radio halo and 26 that host one or more radio relics (including candidates). About half of them are new discoveries. The detection rate of clusters hosting a radio halo and one or more relics in our sample is $30\pm11$% and $10\pm6$%, respectively. Extrapolating these numbers, we anticipate that once LoTSS covers the entire northern sky it will provide the detection of $251\pm92$ clusters hosting a halo and $83\pm50$ clusters hosting at least one relic from Planck clusters alone.


Accepted for publication in A&A on Feb 3rd, 2022. Abstract abridged to meet arXiv requirements. All FITS images and tables produced in this work are publicly available on the project website

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