University of Hertfordshire

From the same journal

By the same authors

Three-dimensional kinematic correlates of ball velocity during maximal instep soccer kicking in males

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Jonathan Sinclair
  • David Fewtrell
  • Paul John Taylor
  • Lindsay Bottoms
  • Stephen Atkins
  • Sarah Jane Hobbs
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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)799-805
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Journal of Sport Science
Publication statusPublished - 23 Apr 2014


Achieving a high ball velocity is important during soccer shooting, as it gives the goalkeeper less time to react, thus improving a player's chance of scoring. This study aimed to identify important technical aspects of kicking linked to the generation of ball velocity using regression analyses. Maximal instep kicks were obtained from 22 academy-level soccer players using a 10-camera motion capture system sampling at 500 Hz. Three-dimensional kinematics of the lower extremity segments were obtained. Regression analysis was used to identify the kinematic parameters associated with the development of ball velocity. A single biomechanical parameter; knee extension velocity of the kicking limb at ball contact Adjusted R(2) = 0.39, p ≤ 0.01 was obtained as a significant predictor of ball-velocity. This study suggests that sagittal plane knee extension velocity is the strongest contributor to ball velocity and potentially overall kicking performance. It is conceivable therefore that players may benefit from exposure to coaching and strength techniques geared towards the improvement of knee extension angular velocity as highlighted in this study.


This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis Group in European Journal of Sport Science, on 23 April 2014, available online at:

ID: 8757028