University of Hertfordshire

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Titans of the Early Universe: The Prato Statement on the Origin of the First Supermassive Black Holes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Tyrone E. Woods
  • Bhaskar Agarwal
  • Volker Bromm
  • Andrew Bunker
  • Ke-Jung Chen
  • Sunmyon Chon
  • Andrea Ferrara
  • Simon C. O. Glover
  • Lionel Haemmerle
  • Zoltan Haiman
  • Tilman Hartwig
  • Alexander Heger
  • Shingo Hirano
  • Takashi Hosokawa
  • Kohei Inayoshi
  • Ralf S. Klessen
  • Filippos Koliopanos
  • Muhammad A. Latif
  • Yuexing Li
  • Lucio Mayer
  • Mar Mezcua
  • Priyamvada Natarajan
  • Fabio Pacucci
  • Martin J. Rees
  • John A. Regan
  • Yuya Sakurai
  • Stefania Salvadori
  • Raffaella Schneider
  • Marco Surace
  • Takamitsu L. Tanaka
  • Daniel J. Whalen
  • Naoki Yoshida
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Original languageEnglish
JournalPublications of the Astronomical Society of Australia
Publication statusPublished - 29 Oct 2018


In recent years, the discovery of massive quasars at z~7 has provided a striking challenge to our understanding of the origin and growth of supermassive black holes in the early Universe. Mounting observational and theoretical evidence points to massive seeds, formed by the collapse of supermassive stars, as being the most viable progenitor model for such early, massive accreting black holes. Although considerable progress has been made in our theoretical understanding, many questions remain regarding how (and how often) such objects may form, how they live and die, and how next generation observatories may yield new insight into the origin of these primordial titans. This review is a statement summarizing the discussions held at the Monash Prato Centre from November 20--24, 2017, during the workshop "Titans of the Early Universe: The Origin of the First Supermassive Black Holes."


Solicited review article submitted to Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia. 35 pages, 15 figures, 1 table

ID: 16181163