University of Hertfordshire

From the same journal

By the same authors


  • Yingzu Liu
  • Kaidi Wan
  • Liang Li
  • Zhihua Wang
  • Kefa Cen
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Original languageEnglish
Article number921
Pages (from-to)921
Publication statusPublished - 13 Apr 2018


To investigate turbulent reacting flows, a low-Mach number large-eddy simulation (LES) code called ‘LESsCoal’ has been developed in our group. This code employs the Germano dynamic sub-grid scale (SGS) model and the steady flamelet/progress variable approach (SFPVA) on a stagger-structured grid, in both time and space. The method of manufactured solutions (MMS) is used to investigate the convergence and the order of accuracy of the code when no model is used. Finally, a Sandia non-reacting propane jet and Sandia Flame D are simulated to inspect the performance of the code under experimental setups. The results show that MMS is a promising tool for code verification and that the low-Mach-number LES code can accurately predict the non-reacting and reacting turbulent flows. The validated LES code can be used in numerical investigations on the turbulent combustion characteristics of new fuel gases in the future.


© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (

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