University of Hertfordshire


  • Carol Verheecke-Vaessen
  • Esther Garcia-Cela
  • Alejandro Lopez-Prieto
  • Inga Osk Jonsdottir
  • Angel Medina
  • Naresh Magan
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Original languageEnglish
Article number109203
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Food Microbiology
Early online date21 Apr 2021
Publication statusPublished - 16 Jun 2021


In the UK and Northern Europe, ripening oats can become contaminated with T-2 and HT-2 mycotoxins, produced mainly by Fusarium langsethiae. There are indicative levels related to the maximum limits for oat grain for these toxins. The objectives of this study were to examine the effect of interacting conditions of temperature (10–30 °C) and water activity (aw, 0.995–0.90) on (a) lag times prior to growth, (b) growth and (c) T-2 and HT-2 toxins by two strains of F. langsethiae isolated from oats in the UK and compare this with the type strain (Fl201059) which has been genomically sequenced, and (d) develop (and validated with published data) a probabilistic models for impacts of temperature × aw on growth and toxin production. All three strains had an optimum aw range and temperature of 0.995–0.98 and 25 °C for growth. For T-2 + HT-2 production these were 0.995 aw and 20 °C. Overall, the type strain produced higher amounts of T-2 + HT-2 with a HT-2/T-2 ratio of up to 76. Using this study data sets and those from the literature, probabilistic models were developed and validated for growth and T-2 + HT-2 toxin production in relation to temperature × aw conditions. These models, when applied in stored oats, will be beneficial in determining the conditions on the relative level of risk of contamination with these two toxins in the context of the EU indicative maximum levels.


© 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. This is the accepted manuscript version of an article which has been published in final form at

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