University of Hertfordshire

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  • Victoria Legh-Land
  • Allen E. Haddrell
  • David Lewis
  • Darragh Murnane
  • Jonathan P. Reid
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Original languageEnglish
Article number941
Number of pages22
JournalPharmaceutics
Volume13
Issue7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 24 Jun 2021

Abstract

As pulmonary drug deposition is a function of aerosol particle size distribution, it is critical that the dynamics of particle formation and maturation in pMDI sprays in the interim between generation and inhalation are fully understood. This paper presents an approach to measure the evaporative and condensational fluxes of volatile components and water from and to solution pMDI droplets following generation using a novel technique referred to as the Single Particle Electrodynamic Lung (SPEL). In doing so, evaporating aerosol droplets are shown capable of acting as condensation nuclei for water. Indeed, we show that the rapid vaporisation of volatile components from a volatile droplet is directly correlated to the volume of water taken up by condensation. Furthermore, a significant volume of water is shown to condense on droplets of a model pMDI formulation (hydrofluoroalkane (HFA), ethanol and glycerol) during evaporative droplet ageing, displaying a dramatic shift from a core composition of a volatile species to that of predominantly water (non-volatile glycerol remained in this case). This yields a droplet with a water activity of 0.98 at the instance of inhalation. The implications of these results on regional and total pulmonary drug deposition are explored using the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) deposition model, with an integrated semi-analytical treatment of hygroscopic growth. Through this, droplets with water activity of 0.98 upon inhalation are shown to produce markedly different dose deposition profiles to those with lower water activities at the point of inspiration.

Notes

© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

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