University of Hertfordshire

From the same journal

By the same authors

  • Borwin Bandelow
  • Christer Allgulander
  • David S. Baldwin
  • Daniel Lucas da Conceição Costa
  • Damiaan Denys
  • Nesrin Dilbaz
  • Katharina Domschke
  • Elias Eriksson
  • Josef Hättenschwiler
  • Eric Hollander
  • Hisanobu Kaiya
  • Tatiana Karavaeva
  • Siegfried Kasper
  • Martin Katzman
  • Yong Ku Kim
  • Takeshi Inoue
  • Leslie Lim
  • Vasilios Masdrakis
  • José M. Menchón
  • Euripedes C. Miguel
  • Hans Jürgen Möller
  • Antonio E. Nardi
  • Stefano Pallanti
  • Giampaolo Perna
  • Dan Rujescu
  • Vladan Starcevic
  • Dan J. Stein
  • Shih Jen Tsai
  • Michael Van Ameringen
  • Anna Vasileva
  • Zhen Wang
  • Joseph Zohar
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Original languageEnglish
JournalThe World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Early online date28 Jul 2022
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 28 Jul 2022


Aim: This is the third version of the guideline of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Task Force for the Pharmacological Treatment of Anxiety, Obsessive–Compulsive and Posttraumatic Stress Disorders (published in 2002, revised in 2008).

Method: A consensus panel of 33 international experts representing 22 countries developed recommendations based on efficacy and acceptability of available treatments. In total, 1007 RCTs for the treatment of these disorders in adults, adolescents, and children with medications, psychotherapy and other non-pharmacological interventions were evaluated, applying the same rigorous methods that are standard for the assessment of medications.

Result: This paper, Part I, contains recommendations for the treatment of panic disorder/agoraphobia (PDA), generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), specific phobias, mixed anxiety disorders in children and adolescents, separation anxiety and selective mutism. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are first-line medications. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is the first-line psychotherapy for anxiety disorders. The expert panel also made recommendations for patients not responding to standard treatments and recommendations against interventions with insufficient evidence.

Conclusion: It is the goal of this initiative to provide treatment guidance for these disorders that has validity throughout the world.


© 2022 Informa UK Limited. This is the accepted manuscript version of an article which has been published in final form at

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